Albert Einstein was one of the most brilliant and influential mathematical physicists in human history. Even 62 years after his passing, he is still widely regarded as the prototypical genius.
Today’s timeline from KickResume is an inventive and entertaining look at Einstein’s life and achievements.
Albert Einstein was born on March 14, 1879, in the German city of Ulm. From an early age, Einstein was fascinated by mathematics, science, and music.
While he would eventually go on to reveal the inner workings of the universe, Einstein struggled as a student, failed exams, and had dust-ups with authority figures.
In 1903, he married a former classmate, Mileva Marić, though his parents disapproved. Recently discovered letters indicate that Marić – who was also a physicist – may have contributed significantly to his groundbreaking work. The couple had a daughter in 1902 (who was given up for adoption), and later had two sons.
In 1905, Albert Einstein was working as a clerk in the patent office in Bern, Switzerland. The 26-year-old had only recently submitted his doctoral thesis to the University of Zurich, but was hard at work writing four papers in a single year that would eventually turn the world of science on its head. That is why 1905 is often referred to as an annus mirabilis (or “miraculous year” in Latin).
To summarize: Albert Einstein laid the foundation of quantum physics, introduced special relativity, and established the scientific basis of nuclear energy in his spare time.
From Science Star to Supernova
By 1919, while working as a professor of theoretical physics at the University of Berlin, Einstein theorized that an impending solar eclipse would provide a rare opportunity to observe gravity’s effect on light. When reports came back that his predictions were proven correct, it not only sent a shock-wave through the scientific community, but the whole world.
New Theory of the Universe. Newtonian Ideas Overthrown.
– Headline in the London Times
Years after Einstein’s miracle year, his immense accomplishments started to become common knowledge. The physicist, now an overnight celebrity, spent the next few years traveling, doing speaking engagements, and collecting awards. He was also a founder of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem in 1921, and won a Nobel Prize that same year.
Albert Einstein was an outspoken pacifist and Jew, so as Hitler rose to power in Germany, he made the decision to emigrate to the United States. He accepting a position at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey. The physicist would never set foot in the country of his birth again.
Einstein and the Atomic Era
A month before World War II, Einstein and his colleague, Leo Szilárd, wrote numerous letters to President Franklin D. Roosevelt sounding the alarm that Germany was developing “extremely powerful bombs of a new type”. The President took the letters seriously and soon after, the Advisory Committee on Uranium (a precursor to the Manhattan Project) was created.
Einstein carried the guilt of his role in sparking the development of atomic weapons, and he would continue to speak out against their use throughout the 1940s and onward.
The Fight For Equality
Seeing the parallels between the treatment of Jews in Germany and African Americans in his adopted country, Einstein became a member of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). He campaigned for civil rights and in a famous speech at Lincoln University, he labeled racism “a disease of white people,” and added, “I do not intend to be quiet about it.”
In 1952, Einstein declined an offer from Israel’s premier, David Ben-Gurion, to become president of Israel.
At the age of 76, Einstein suffered an abdominal aortic aneurysm, but opted against surgery upon arriving at the hospital. “I want to go when I want,” he stated at the time. “It is tasteless to prolong life artificially. I have done my share, it is time to go. I will do it elegantly.” Albert Einstein died in his sleep on April 18, 1955.
Though the man himself is gone, the legacy and unique world-view of the eccentric physicist continues to influence and inspire humanity to this day.
Every Visible Star in the Night Sky, in One Map
This striking map depicts all the stars and celestial bodies that are visible in the night sky, all on one giant backdrop.
Every Visible Star in the Night Sky, in One Map
View the high resolution version of this incredible map by clicking here.
The stars have fascinated humanity since the beginning of civilization, from using them to track the different seasons, to relying on them to navigate thousands of miles on the open ocean.
Today, travelers trek to the ends of the Earth to catch a glimpse of the Milky Way, untouched by light pollution. However, if you’re in the city and the heavens align on a clear night, you might still be able to spot somewhere between 2,500 to 5,000 stars scattered across your field of vision.
This stunning star map was created by Eleanor Lutz, under the Reddit pseudonym /hellofromthemoon, and is a throwback to all the stars and celestial bodies that could be seen by the naked eye on Near Year’s Day in 2000.
Star Light, Star Bright
Stars have served as a basis for navigation for thousands of years. Polaris, also dubbed the North Star in the Ursa Minor constellation, is arguably one of the most influential, even though it sits 434 light years away.
Because of its relative location to the Earth’s axis, Polaris is reliably found in the same spot throughout the year—on this star map, it can be spotted in the top right corner. The Polynesian people famously followed the path of the North Star, along with wave currents, in all their way-finding journeys.
Interestingly, Polaris’ dependability is why it is commonly mistaken as the brightest star, but Sirius actually takes that crown—find it below the Gemini constellation, at the 7HR latitude and -20° longitude coordinates on the visualization. Located in the Canis Majoris constellation, Sirius burns bluish-white, and is one of the hottest objects in the universe with a surface temperature of 17,400°F (9,667°C). Sirius is nearly 40 times brighter than our Sun.
The Egyptians associated Sirius with the goddess Isis, and used its location to predict the annual flooding of the Nile. This also isn’t the only way humans have used visible stars to “predict” the future, as evidenced by the ancient practice of astrology.
Seeking Answers in the Stars
In the star map above, the orange lines denote the twelve signs of the Zodiac, each found roughly along the same band from 10° to -30° longitude. These Zodiac alignments, along with planetary movements, form the basis of astrology, which has been practiced across cultures to predict significant events. While the scientific method has widely demonstrated that astrology doesn’t hold much validity, many people still believe in it today.
The red lines on the visualization signify the constellations officially recognized by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) in 1922. Its ancient Greek origins are recorded on the same map as the blue lines, from which the modern constellation boundaries are based. Here’s a deeper dive into all 88 IAU constellations:
|Constellation||English Name||Category||Brightest star|
|Andromeda||Chained Maiden/ Princess||Creature/ Character||Alpheratz|
|Antlia||Air Pump||Object||α Antliae|
|Apus||Bird of Paradise||Animal||α Apodis|
|♒ Aquarius||Water Bearer||Creature/ Character||Sadalsuud|
|Caelum||Engraving Tool||Object||α Caeli|
|Canes Venatici||Hunting Dogs||Animal||Cor Caroli|
|Canis Major||Great Dog||Animal||Sirius|
|Canis Minor||Lesser Dog||Animal||Procyon|
|♑ Capricornus||Sea Goat||Creature/ Character||Deneb Algedi|
|Cassiopeia||Seated Queen||Creature/ Character||Schedar|
|Centaurus||Centaur||Creature/ Character||Rigil Kentaurus|
|Cetus||Sea Monster||Creature/ Character||Diphda|
|Coma Berenices||Bernice's Hair||Creature/ Character||β Comae Berenices|
|Corona Australis||Southern Crown||Object||Meridiana|
|Corona Borealis||Northern Crown||Object||Alphecca|
|♊ Gemini||Twins||Creature/ Character||Pollux|
|Horologium||Pendulum Clock||Object||α Horologii|
|Hydra||Female Water Snake||Creature/ Character||Alphard|
|Hydrus||Male Water Snake||Creature/ Character||β Hydri|
|Indus||Indian||Creature/ Character||α Indi|
|Leo Minor||Lesser Lion||Animal||Regulus|
|Mensa||Table Mountain||Object||α Mensae|
|Monoceros||Unicorn||Creature/ Character||β Monocerotis|
|Norma||Carpenter's Square||Object||γ2 Normae|
|Ophiuchus||Serpent Bearer||Creature/ Character||Rasalhague|
|Pegasus||Winged Horse||Creature/ Character||Enif|
|Pictor||Painter's Easel||Object||α Pictoris|
|Piscis Austrinus||Southern Fish||Creature/ Character||Fomalhaut|
|Pyxis||Mariner's Compass||Object||α Pyxidis|
|Reticulum||Reticle (Eyepiece)||Object||α Reticuli|
|♐ Sagittarius||Archer||Creature/ Character||Kaus Australis|
|Sculptor||Sculptor||Creature/ Character||α Sculptoris|
|Triangulum Australe||Southern Triangle||Object||β Trianguli|
|Ursa Major||Great Bear||Animal||Alioth|
|Ursa Minor||Little Bear||Animal||Polaris|
|♍ Virgo||Maiden||Creature/ Character||Spica|
|Volans||Flying Fish||Animal||β Volantis|
(Source: International Astronomical Union)
Into the Depths of Deep Space
The quirk of naming stars after flora and fauna doesn’t end there. Our night sky also reveals visible galaxies, nebulae, and clusters far, far away—but they’re named after familiar birds, natural objects, and mythical creatures. See if you can find some of these interesting names:
- Open Cluster: Wild Duck Cluster
- Open Cluster: Eagle Nebula
- Open Cluster: Beehive Cluster
- Open Cluster: Butterfly Cluster
- Emission Nebula: North American
- Emission Nebula: Trifid Nebula
- Emission Nebula: Lagoon Nebula
- Emission Nebula: Orion Nebula
- Open Cluster with Emission Nebula: Swan Nebula
- Open Cluster with Emission Nebula: Christmas Tree Cluster
- Open Cluster with Emission Nebula: Rosette Nebula
- Globular Cluster: Hercules Cluster
There’s an interesting concentration of unnamed open and globular clusters just above the Sagittarius constellation, between 18-20HR latitude and -20° to -30° longitude. Another one can be seen next to Cassiopeia, just below Polaris between 1HR-3HR latitude, at 60° longitude. The only two visible spiral galaxies, Andromeda and Pinwheel, are located close between 0-2HR latitude and 30°-40° longitude.
The Relentless Passage of Time
We now know that the night sky isn’t as static as people used to believe. Although it’s Earth’s major pole star today, Polaris was in fact off-kilter by roughly 8° a few thousand years ago. Our ancestors saw the twin northern pole stars, Kochab and Pherkad, where Polaris is now.
This difference is due to the Earth’s natural axial tilt. Eight degrees may not seem like much, but because of this angle, the constellations we gaze at today are the same, yet completely different from the ones our ancestors looked up at.
If you liked exploring this star map, be sure to check out the geology of Mars from the same designer.
The Shape of the World, According to Old Maps
What did ancient maps look like, before we had access to airplanes and satellites? See the evolution of the world map in this nifty infographic.
The Shape of the World, According to Ancient Maps
A Babylonian clay tablet helped unlock an understanding for how our ancestors saw the world.
Dating all the way back to the 6th century BCE, the Imago Mundi is the oldest known world map, and it offers a unique glimpse into ancient perspectives on earth and the heavens.
While this is the first-known interpretation of such a map, it would certainly not be the last. Today’s visualization, designed by Reddit user PisseGuri82, won the “Best of 2018 Map Contest” for depicting the evolving shapes of man-made maps throughout history.
AD 150: Once Upon A Time in Egypt
In this former location of the Roman Empire, Ptolemy was the first to use positions of latitude and longitude to map countries into his text Geographia. After these ancient maps were lost for centuries, Ptolemy’s work was rediscovered and reconstructed in the 15th century, serving as a foundation for cartography throughout the Middle Ages.
1050: Pointing to the Heavens
The creation of this quintessential medieval T-and-O Beatine map is attributed not to an unknown French monk, but to the Spanish monk Beatus of Liébana. Although it shows several continents—Africa, Asia, and Europe—its main objective was to visualize Biblical locations. For example, because the sun rises in the east, Paradise (The Garden of Eden) can be seen pointing upwards and towards Asia on the map.
1154: The World Turned Upside Down
The Arabic geographer Muhammad al-Idrisi made one of the most advanced medieval world maps for King Roger II of Sicily. The Tabula Rogeriana, which literally translates to “the book of pleasant journeys into faraway lands”, was ahead of the curve compared to contemporaries because it used information from traveler and merchant accounts. The original map was oriented south-up, which is why modern depictions show it upside down.
1375: The Zenith of Medieval Map Work
The Jewish cartographer Abraham Cresques created the most important map of the medieval period, the Catalan Atlas, with his son for Prince John of Aragon. It covers the “East and the West, and everything that, from the Strait [of Gibraltar] leads to the West”. Many Indian and Chinese cities can be identified, based on various voyages by the explorers Marco Polo and Sir John Mandeville.
After this, the Age of Discovery truly began—and maps started to more closely resemble the world map as we know it today.
1489: Feeling Ptolemy and Polo’s Influences
The 15th century was a radical time for map-makers, once Ptolemy’s geographical drawings were re-discovered. Henricus Martellus expanded on Ptolemaic maps, and also relied on sources like Marco Polo’s travels to imagine the Old World. His milestone map closely resembles the oldest-surviving terrestrial globe, Erdapfel, created by cartographer Martin Behaim. Today, it’s preserved at the Yale University archives.
1529: A Well-Kept Spanish Secret
The first ever scientific world map is most widely attributed to the Portuguese cartographer Diego Ribero. The Padrón Real was the Spanish Crown’s official and secret master map, made from hundreds of sailors’ reports of any new lands and their coordinates.
1599: The Wright Idea
English mathematician and cartographer Edward Wright was the first to perfect the Mercator projection—which takes the Earth’s curvature into consideration. Otherwise known as a Wright-Molyneux world map, this linear representation of the earth’s cylindrical map quickly became the standard for navigation.
1778-1832: The Emergence of Modern World Maps
The invention of the marine chronometer transformed marine navigation—as ships were now able to detect both longitude and latitude. Jacques-Nicolas Bellin, a French geographer, was responsible for the 18th century’s highly accurate world maps and nautical charts. His designs favored functionality over the decorative flourishes of cartographers past.
Finally, the German cartographer and lawyer Adolf Stieler was the man behind Stieler’s Handatlas, the leading German world atlas until the mid-20th century. His maps were famous for being updated based on new explorations, making them the most reliable map possible.
Is There Uncharted Territory Left?
It is worth mentioning that these ancient maps above are mostly coming from a European perspective.
That said, the Islamic Golden Age also boasts an impressive cartographic record, reaching its peak partially in thanks to Muhammad al-Idrisi in the 11th century. Similarly, Ancient Chinese empires had a cartographic golden age after the invention of the compass as well.
Does this mean there’s nothing left to explore today? Quite the contrary. While we know so much about our landmasses, the undersea depths remain quite a mystery. In fact, we’ve explored more of outer space than we have 95% of our own oceans.
If you liked the visualization above, be sure to explore the world’s borders by age, broken down impressively by the same designer.
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