Albert Einstein was one of the most brilliant and influential mathematical physicists in human history. Even 62 years after his passing, he is still widely regarded as the prototypical genius.
Today’s timeline from KickResume is an inventive and entertaining look at Einstein’s life and achievements.
Albert Einstein was born on March 14, 1879, in the German city of Ulm. From an early age, Einstein was fascinated by mathematics, science, and music.
While he would eventually go on to reveal the inner workings of the universe, Einstein struggled as a student, failed exams, and had dust-ups with authority figures.
In 1903, he married a former classmate, Mileva Marić, though his parents disapproved. Recently discovered letters indicate that Marić – who was also a physicist – may have contributed significantly to his groundbreaking work. The couple had a daughter in 1902 (who was given up for adoption), and later had two sons.
In 1905, Albert Einstein was working as a clerk in the patent office in Bern, Switzerland. The 26-year-old had only recently submitted his doctoral thesis to the University of Zurich, but was hard at work writing four papers in a single year that would eventually turn the world of science on its head. That is why 1905 is often referred to as an annus mirabilis (or “miraculous year” in Latin).
To summarize: Albert Einstein laid the foundation of quantum physics, introduced special relativity, and established the scientific basis of nuclear energy in his spare time.
From Science Star to Supernova
By 1919, while working as a professor of theoretical physics at the University of Berlin, Einstein theorized that an impending solar eclipse would provide a rare opportunity to observe gravity’s effect on light. When reports came back that his predictions were proven correct, it not only sent a shock-wave through the scientific community, but the whole world.
New Theory of the Universe. Newtonian Ideas Overthrown.
– Headline in the London Times
Years after Einstein’s miracle year, his immense accomplishments started to become common knowledge. The physicist, now an overnight celebrity, spent the next few years traveling, doing speaking engagements, and collecting awards. He was also a founder of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem in 1921, and won a Nobel Prize that same year.
Albert Einstein was an outspoken pacifist and Jew, so as Hitler rose to power in Germany, he made the decision to emigrate to the United States. He accepting a position at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey. The physicist would never set foot in the country of his birth again.
Einstein and the Atomic Era
A month before World War II, Einstein and his colleague, Leo Szilárd, wrote numerous letters to President Franklin D. Roosevelt sounding the alarm that Germany was developing “extremely powerful bombs of a new type”. The President took the letters seriously and soon after, the Advisory Committee on Uranium (a precursor to the Manhattan Project) was created.
Einstein carried the guilt of his role in sparking the development of atomic weapons, and he would continue to speak out against their use throughout the 1940s and onward.
The Fight For Equality
Seeing the parallels between the treatment of Jews in Germany and African Americans in his adopted country, Einstein became a member of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). He campaigned for civil rights and in a famous speech at Lincoln University, he labeled racism “a disease of white people,” and added, “I do not intend to be quiet about it.”
In 1952, Einstein declined an offer from Israel’s premier, David Ben-Gurion, to become president of Israel.
At the age of 76, Einstein suffered an abdominal aortic aneurysm, but opted against surgery upon arriving at the hospital. “I want to go when I want,” he stated at the time. “It is tasteless to prolong life artificially. I have done my share, it is time to go. I will do it elegantly.” Albert Einstein died in his sleep on April 18, 1955.
Though the man himself is gone, the legacy and unique world-view of the eccentric physicist continues to influence and inspire humanity to this day.
Ranked: Biggest Fast Food Chains in America
Every year, fast food chains rake in north of $200 billion in revenue per year. Here are the biggest chains, ranked by revenue and number of locations.
Ranked: The Biggest Fast Food Chains in America
Fast food is a supersized business in America.
The average American spends as much as $1,200 every year on fast food — and roughly a quarter of the U.S. population eats three or more fast food meals per week.
Today’s unique infographic, via TitleMax, shows just how dominant the quick serve food industry is, and which brands are leading the pack in terms of revenue and store locations.
All of the biggest fast food chains now top $1 billion in sales annually. McDonald’s leads the pack with almost triple the sales of the number two chain, Starbucks.
Below are the top 30 fast food chains in the United States by revenue:
|Rank||Chain||Sales (U.S., 2017)||# of Locations (U.S.)|
|18||Jack in the Box||$3.5B||2,251|
In 2017, the top 30 fast food chains rang up $172 billion in sales at over 140,000 locations across the United States. When smaller chains are also included, annual industry revenue tops a whopping $200 billion.
Fast food can be a profitable business, but certain chains are runaway successes when sales-per-unit are considered. Chick-fil-A’s sales average out to $4.3 million per location — 53% higher than McDonald’s, which brings in $2.8 million of sales per location.
Subway, which is known for having a low franchise fee and no exclusive territory rights, has the lowest sales-per-unit in the top 30 ($419,792).
That said, no one can compare to Subway in terms of sheer volume. The chain has over 25,000 locations, making it not only the biggest fast food chain in the country, but the most common retailer overall (even beating out dollar stores). It’s possible that America has seen peak Subway though — the number of locations has been steadily dropping since 2011.
On the opposite end of the spectrum is Starbucks. The Seattle-based coffee chain has been relentlessly expanding over the past decade.
Of course, not all fast food chains have the ubiquity of Subway and McDonald’s. Many of these brands have achieved impressive sales numbers in specific regions. Whether you’re loyal to Dunkin’ Donuts, Chick-fil-A, or In-N-Out may depend heavily on where you live.
Will America’s next big fast food powerhouse come from an already-strong regional chain, or will it be the result of a new phenomenon, completely?
Wired World: 35 Years of Submarine Cables in One Map
Watch the explosive growth of the global submarine cable network, and learn who’s funding the next generation of cables.
You could be reading this article from nearly anywhere in the world and there’s a good chance it loaded in mere seconds.
Long gone are the days when images would load pixel row by pixel row. Now, even high-quality video is instantly accessible from almost everywhere. How did the internet get so fast? Because it’s moving at the speed of light.
The Information Superhighway
The miracle of modern fiber optics can be traced to a single man, Narinder Singh Kapany. The young physicist was skeptical when his professors asserted that light ‘always travels in a straight line’. His explorations into the behavior of light eventually led to the creation of fiber optics—essentially, beaming light through a thin glass tube.
The next step to using fiber optics as a means of communication was lowering the cable’s attenuation rate. Throughout the 1960-70s, companies made gains in manufacturing, reducing the number of impurities and allowing light to cross great distances without a dramatic decrease in signal intensity.
By the mid-1980s, long distance fiber optic cables had finally reached the feasibility stage.
Crossing the Pond
The first intercontinental fiber optic cable was strung across the floor of the Atlantic Ocean in 1988. The cable—known as TAT-8*—was spearheaded by three companies; AT&T, France Télécom, and British Telecom. The cable was able to carry the equivalent of 40,000 telephone channels, a ten-fold increase over its galvanic predecessor, TAT-7.
Once the kinks of the new cable were worked out, the floodgates were open. During the course of the 1990s, many more cables hit the ocean floor. By the dawn of the new millennium, every populated continent on Earth was connected by fiber optic cables. The physical network of the internet was beginning to take shape.
As today’s video from ESRI shows, the early 2000s saw a boom in undersea cable development, reflecting the uptick in internet usage around globe. In 2001 alone, eight new cables connected North America and Europe.
From 2016-2020, over 100 new cables were laid with an estimated value of $14 billion. Now, even the most remote Polynesian islands have access to high-speed internet thanks to undersea cables.
*TAT-8 does not appear in the video above as it was retired in 2002.
The Shifting Nature of Cable Construction
Even though nearly every corner of the globe is now physically connected, the rate of cable construction is not slowing down.
This is due to the increasing capacity of new cables and our appetite for high-quality video content. New cables are so efficient that the majority of potential capacity along major cable routes will come from cables that are less than five years old.
Traditionally, a consortium of telecom companies or governments would fund cable construction, but tech companies are increasingly funding their own submarine cable networks.
Amazon, Microsoft and Google own close to 65% market share in cloud data storage, so it’s understandable that they’d want to control the physical means of transporting that data as well.
These three companies now own 63,605 miles of submarine cable. While laying cable is a costly endeavor, it’s necessary to meet surging demand—content providers’ share of data transmission skyrocketed from around 8% to nearly 40% over the past decade.
A Bright Future for Dark Fiber
At the same time, more aging cables will be taken offline. Even though signals are no longer traveling through this network of “dark fiber”, it’s still being put to productive use. It turns out that undersea telecom cables make a very effective seismic network, helping researchers study offshore earthquakes and the geologic structures on the ocean floor.
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