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The Top 10 Biggest Companies in India

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The Top 10 Biggest Companies in India

The Top 10 Biggest Companies in India

When India hosted the 13th BRICS summit in September 2021, it was the sixth-largest economy in the world with a GDP of $3.05 trillion.

That’s more than double the GDP it had when the country first joined the group of emerging economies in 2009 (alongside Brazil, Russia, China and later South Africa), at $1.3 trillion.

What are the major industries and companies driving this growth in GDP, and rising alongside it? This time we’re highlighting the top 10 biggest companies in India, the world’s most populous democracy.

What Are the Biggest Public Companies in India?

India’s growth to one of the world’s most powerful economies came extremely quickly, considering it only became a federal republic in 1950.

In 1951, the country was considered relatively impoverished compared to the Western world, with 361 million people, a per-capita income of just $64, and a literacy rate of 17%. By 2021, the population had surged to 1.2 billion, income rose to $1,498, and literacy climbed to 74%.

And most of that growth was fueled internally, as the Indian government was largely protectionist until the 1990s. Today, its free market policies and wide cultural reach help bolster the country’s massive industrial, agricultural, and telecommunications industries.

Here are India’s biggest public companies by market capitalization in October 2021:

Top 10 Indian CompaniesCategoryMarket Cap (USD)
Reliance IndustriesOil and Gas$230.7B
Tata GroupInformation Technology$186.7B
HDFC BankFinancial$135.1B
InfosysInformation Technology$94.4B
Hindustan UnileverPersonal Care$85.6B
Housing Development Finance Corporation (HDFC)Financial$66.0B
ICICI BankFinancial$65.7B
Bajaj FinanceFinancial$61.7B
State Bank of IndiaFinancial$54.3B
Kotak Mahindra BankFinancial$53.3B

Topping the charts are two massive conglomerates, Reliance Industries with a market cap of $231 billion and Tata Group with a market cap of $187 billion.

Reliance started in textile production before a string of oil discoveries and purchases saw it overtake state-owned oil enterprises in revenue. Now the conglomerate also has holdings in petrochemicals, retail, telecom, and mass media, making chairman and largest shareholder Mukesh Ambani the richest person in Asia with a net worth of $100 billion.

But India’s largest conglomerate is Tata Group, with more than 25 subsidiaries in IT (its largest income source), airplanes, food and beverages, and industrials. Tata Motors is India’s largest vehicle manufacturer, and the owner of South Korea’s Daewoo and the UK’s Jaguar Land Rover.

India’s Top 10 Biggest Companies Mainly in Financials

Outside of major conglomerates and a well-known subsidiary, India’s top 10 biggest companies are concentrated in the financial sector.

One of those is HDFC Bank with a market cap of $135.1 billion. An offshoot of the #6 ranked company Housing Development Finance Corporation, HDFC Bank is India’s largest private sector bank by assets.

In total, financials make up six of India’s 10 biggest companies. In addition to HDFC, they include banking provider ICICI Bank (which also has subsidiaries in the UK and Canada), commercial lending company Bajaj Finance, and banks Kotak Mahindra Bank and State Bank of India (the country’s first national bank and its largest).

But there were two non-financial companies bigger than most of India’s banks; Financial software developer and consultant Infosys and personal products company Hindustan Unilever, a subsidiary of British consumer goods giant Unilever.

India is also an agricultural powerhouse—the world’s largest producer of milk and second largest of tea—but most of it is consumed internally by its sizable population. Agriculture accounts for 18.1% of the country’s GDP, behind services at 55.6% and the industrial sector at 26.3%.

With more rapid economic growth on the horizon, India’s biggest companies list might shift over time. What other companies or industries do you associate with India?

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United States

Charted: U.S. Median House Prices vs. Income

We chart the ever-widening gap between median incomes and the median price of houses in America, using data from the Federal Reserve from 1984 to 2022.

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A cropped chart with the ever-widening gap between median house prices vs. income in America, using data from the Federal Reserve from 1984 to 2022.

Houses in America Now Cost Six Times the Median Income

This was originally posted on our Voronoi app. Download the app for free on iOS or Android and discover incredible data-driven charts from a variety of trusted sources.

As of 2023, an American household hoping to buy a median-priced home, needs to make at least $100,000 a year. In some cities, they need to make nearly 3–4x that amount.

The median household income in the country is currently well below that $100,000 threshold. To look at the trends between median incomes and median house prices through the years, we charted their movement using the following datasets data from the Federal Reserve:

Importantly this graphic does not make allowances for actual household disposable income, nor how monthly mortgage payments change depending on the interest rates at the time. Finally, both datasets are in current U.S. dollars, meaning they are not adjusted for inflation.

Timeline: Median House Prices vs. Income in America

In 1984, the median annual income for an American household stood at $22,420, and the median house sales price for the first quarter of the year came in at $78,200. The house sales price-to-income ratio stood at 3.49.

By pure arithmetic, this is the most affordable houses have been in the U.S. since the Federal Reserve began tracking this data, as seen in the table below.

A hidden caveat of course, was inflation: running rampant towards the end of the 70s and the start of the 80s. While it fell significantly in the next five years, in 1984 the 30-year fixed rate was close to 14%, meaning a significant chunk of household income went to interest payments.

DateMedian House
Sales Price
Median Household
Income
Price-to-Income Ratio
1984-01-01$78,200$22,4203.49
1985-01-01$82,800$23,6203.51
1986-01-01$88,000$24,9003.53
1987-01-01$97,900$26,0603.76
1988-01-01$110,000$27,2304.04
1989-01-01$118,000$28,9104.08
1990-01-01$123,900$29,9404.14
1991-01-01$120,000$30,1303.98
1992-01-01$119,500$30,6403.90
1993-01-01$125,000$31,2404.00
1994-01-01$130,000$32,2604.03
1995-01-01$130,000$34,0803.81
1996-01-01$137,000$35,4903.86
1997-01-01$145,000$37,0103.92
1998-01-01$152,200$38,8903.91
1999-01-01$157,400$40,7003.87
2000-01-01$165,300$41,9903.94
2001-01-01$169,800$42,2304.02
2002-01-01$188,700$42,4104.45
2003-01-01$186,000$43,3204.29
2004-01-01$212,700$44,3304.80
2005-01-01$232,500$46,3305.02
2006-01-01$247,700$48,2005.14
2007-01-01$257,400$50,2305.12
2008-01-01$233,900$50,3004.65
2009-01-01$208,400$49,7804.19
2010-01-01$222,900$49,2804.52
2011-01-01$226,900$50,0504.53
2012-01-01$238,400$51,0204.67
2013-01-01$258,400$53,5904.82
2014-01-01$275,200$53,6605.13
2015-01-01$289,200$56,5205.12
2016-01-01$299,800$59,0405.08
2017-01-01$313,100$61,1405.12
2018-01-01$331,800$63,1805.25
2019-01-01$313,000$68,7004.56
2020-01-01$329,000$68,0104.84
2021-01-01$369,800$70,7805.22
2022-01-01$433,100$74,5805.81

Note: The median house sale price listed in this table and in the chart is from the first quarter of each year. As a result the ratio can vary between quarters of each year.

The mid-2000s witnessed an explosive surge in home prices, eventually culminating in a housing bubble and subsequent crash—an influential factor in the 2008 recession. Subprime mortgages played a pivotal role in this scenario, as they were issued to buyers with poor credit and then bundled into seemingly more attractive securities for financial institutions. However, these loans eventually faltered as economic circumstances changed.

In response to the recession and to stimulate economic demand, the Federal Reserve reduced interest rates, consequently lowering mortgage rates.

While this measure aimed to make homeownership more accessible, it also contributed to a significant increase in housing prices in the following years. Additionally, a new generation entering the home-buying market heightened demand. Simultaneously, a scarcity of new construction and a surge in investors and corporations converting housing units into rental properties led to a shortage in supply, exerting upward pressure on prices.

As a result, median house prices are now nearly 6x the median household income in America.

How Does Unaffordable Housing Affect the U.S. Economy?

When housing costs exceed a significant portion of household income, families are forced to cut back on other essential expenditures, dampening consumer spending. Given how expanding housing supply helped drive U.S. economic growth in the 20th century, the current constraints in the country are especially ironic.

Unaffordable housing also stifles mobility, as individuals may be reluctant to relocate for better job opportunities due to housing constraints. On the flip side, many cities are seeing severe labor shortages as many lower-wage workers simply cannot afford to live in the city. Both phenomena affect market efficiency and productivity growth.

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