A Regional Breakdown of Stock Market Sectors
Over the last decade, the composition of global stock market sectors has changed substantially. For example, the information technology sector’s weighting has nearly doubled while the energy sector’s weighting has shrunk by nearly three-quarters.
But which regions have gained or lost market share within the stock market sectors? In this graphic from MSCI, we show the regional breakdown of each sector in 2011 and 2021.
Regional Weights by Stock Market Sector
We’ve based our data on the MSCI ACWI Investable Market Index (IMI), a global equity index intended to represent the entire stock market.
Here is how regional weights by stock market sectors have changed in percentage point terms over the last decade. For example, emerging markets’ utility weighting shrunk from 0.5% to 0.3% of the global stock market, a decline of 0.2 percentage points.
|Europe, Middle East, |
Financials shrunk the most in the Asia Pacific region and Europe, Middle East, and Africa (EMEA). The most dominant country in the Asia Pacific region, Japan has seen banking troubles due to shrinking populations and ultra-low interest rates that created razor thin profit margins. In EMEA, the UK’s financial services sector was hit hard when billions of dollars were moved out of London into new centers like Frankfurt after Brexit.
The energy sector, composed almost entirely of oil and gas companies, saw declines in all regions. Given that the U.S. is the biggest producer of crude oil and natural gas in the world, North America had the furthest to fall and experienced the largest drop.
On the other hand, North America saw the biggest increases in sectors like health care, real estate, and communication services. The latter is due to the telecommunications sector being broadened and renamed as the communication services sector in 2018. This newer sector reflects the way people share information and entertain themselves, and includes big U.S. names like Meta, Alphabet and Netflix.
A Different Perspective: Percentage Changes
By far the largest region in the global stock market, North America dominates the biggest changes in absolute terms. But what if we looked at things a different way?
We explored how region weights by stock market sectors have changed in percentage terms over the last decade for a more apples-to-apples comparison. For example, emerging markets’ utility weighting shrunk from 0.5% to 0.3%, a decline of nearly 42%.
|Europe, Middle East, |
Note: Real estate was part of the financials sector in 2011, and has since been split out into a distinct sector.
Using this view, the energy drops are similar across all regions. Investors are focusing on net-zero goals and reducing their exposure to fossil fuels, which has contributed to the sector’s decline.
Emerging markets have seen strong market share growth in the health care, consumer discretionary, and information technology sectors. Health care in particular has exploded, due to a variety of factors:
- Rapid urbanization and rising income are fueling demand for health care services
- Cases of non-communicable diseases such as diabetes and cancer are rising
- Countries are beginning to increase health care spending after years of underinvestment
In the consumer discretionary and information technology sectors, emerging markets’ rising middle class has fueled demand for higher end items. This has led to the rise of eCommerce giants like Alibaba and Meituan in China, which are among the largest companies in the world.
Regional Shifts Within Stock Market Sectors
Investors are likely familiar with the shifts in overall sector weightings. However, this data sheds new light on which regions have become more or less dominant within stock market sectors.
North America increased its overall weighting, thanks in part to the ballooning market valuations of U.S. big tech companies. Relative to their starting weight, emerging markets have seen impressive growth in numerous sectors. On the other hand, Asia Pacific and EMEA have shrunk nearly across the board.
Investors looking to invest in international equity may want to be mindful of these trends within stock market sectors. As geopolitical dynamics and business environments shift, what will regional weightings look like in another 10 years?
Support the Future of Data Storytelling
Sorry to interrupt your reading, but we have a favor to ask. At Visual Capitalist we believe in a world where data can be understood by everyone. That’s why we want to build the VC App - the first app of its kind combining verifiable and transparent data with beautiful, memorable visuals. All available for free.
As a small, independent media company we don’t have the expertise in-house or the funds to build an app like this. So we’re asking our community to help us raise funds on Kickstarter.
ESG Data: The Four Motivations Driving Usage
ESG controversies can damage a company’s value, but ESG data may be able to help manage this risk. What are other reasons for using ESG data?
ESG Data: The Four Motivations Driving Usage
Data is key to the environmental, social, and governance (ESG) revolution. Access to granular ESG data can help boost transparency for market participants. Unfortunately, 63% of U.S. and European asset managers say a lack of quantitative data inhibits their ESG implementation.
Being clear on the potential application of this data is equally important.
- Investors and banks can use ESG data for risk assessment, to spot opportunities, and to push companies for change.
- Companies can publish their own ESG data, quantify progress on their ESG goals, and use data to inform decisions.
- Policymakers can use ESG data to inform regulatory frameworks and measure policy effectiveness.
This graphic from ICE, the second in a three part series on the ESG toolkit, explores four primary motivations of ESG data users.
1. Right Thing
The objective: Having a positive social or environmental impact.
For investors, this can involve screening out companies that conflict with their values and selecting companies that align with their ESG objectives.
As another example, it can involve comparing the social impact of municipal bonds. One way investors can measure social impact is through scores that quantify the potential socioeconomic need of an area, using metrics like poverty and education levels. Here are the social impact scores for three actual municipal bonds issued in Florida.
|State||Bond Issuer||Social Impact Score
(Higher = larger potential impact)
Issuer #1’s bond is projected to have a community impact that is nearly twice as high/positive as Issuer #3’s bond.
For companies, doing the right thing can include assessing their progress on ESG goals and benchmarking themselves to peers. For example, gender and racial representation is a growing area of focus.
The objective: Managing ESG risks, such as climate and reputational risks.
For investors, this can involve back-testing or analysis around specific risk events before they materialize. Here are the risk profiles of two actual municipal bonds in California. The shown bonds are practically identical in many ways, except their wildlife score.
|Issuer #1||Issuer #2|
|Current Coupon Rate||5.0%||5.0%|
|Maturity Date||Aug 01, 2048||August 01, 2048|
|Price to Date (Call Date)||Aug 01, 2027||Aug 01, 2027|
|Wildfire Score (Higher = more risk)||3.6||2.7|
Managing ESG risk can also involve analyzing a company’s policies and governance for weaknesses. This is important as an ESG controversy can have long-lasting effects on the valuation of a company.
In one study, companies with ESG controversies dropped more than 10% in value relative to the S&P 500. They hadn’t fully recovered a year after the incident.
The objective: Targeting outperformance through ESG analysis.
Selecting companies with strong ESG data can align with long-term growth trends and may help boost performance. For heavy emitting industries, research indicates that European companies with lower emissions trade at much higher valuations. The chart below shows companies’ price-to-book ratio relative to the Stoxx 600* sector median.
|Above Median Emission Intensity (Bad)||1.9||1.1||2.0|
|Below Median Emissions Intensity (Good)||2.7||1.9||2.1|
*The Stoxx 600 Index represents large, mid and small capitalization companies across 17 countries of the European region: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.
Energy companies with low emissions trade at a valuation nearly two times higher than energy companies with high emissions.
The objective: Understanding and complying with relevant ESG regulation.
The International Sustainability Standards Board has announced a global reporting proposal aligned with the Task Force on Climate-related Financial Disclosures (TCFD). In addition, a growing number of jurisdictions will require organizational reporting that aligns with the TCFD.
- European Union
- Hong Kong
- New Zealand
Not only that, a European Union regulation known as Sustainable Finance Disclosure Regulation (SFDR) came into effect in 2021. It seeks greater transparency in disclosures from firms marketing investment products. Even firms located outside the EU could be impacted if they serve EU customers. In total, the market cap of these non-EU companies exposed to SFDR amounts to $3.2 trillion.
Matching ESG Data with Motivation
There will be growing demand for transparent data as ESG investing flourishes. To remain competitive, investors, policymakers, and companies need access to ESG data that meets their unique objectives.
In Part 3 of the ESG Toolkit series sponsored by ICE, we’ll look at key sustainability index types.
The Hierarchy of Zero Waste
In a world that generates 2 billion tonnes of waste every year, waste management has become a global concern. Here are some strategies to help guide zero waste policies.
The Hierarchy of Zero Waste
Many cities have set ambitious zero waste targets in the upcoming decades.
The idea is to have communities where waste generation is avoided, and products are shared, reused, or refurbished.
This graphic, sponsored by Northstar Clean Technologies, shows the main strategies and hierarchy to guide zero waste policies.
What is Zero Waste?
In a world that generates approximately 2 billion tons of waste every year, waste management has become a global concern. Thus, countries and cities are increasing efforts to reduce or even eliminate waste when possible.
The Zero Waste International Alliance defines zero waste as “the conservation of all resources by means of responsible production, consumption, reuse, and recovery of products, packaging, and materials without burning and with no discharges to land, water, or air that threaten the environment or human health.”
Becoming a zero waste community, however, is a complex task.
Currently, Sweden recycles 99% of locally-produced waste and is considered the best country in the world when it comes to recycling and reusing waste. However, such results only came after almost 40 years of recycling and reuse policies.
In line with this, here are seven commonly accepted steps you can use to achieve zero waste:
1. Rethink, Redesign Products
The global population consumes 110 billion tons of materials each year, but only 8.6% is reused or recycled. In a zero waste society, single-use products are avoided and products are designed with sustainable practices and materials.
Consumption must be planned carefully to reduce the unnecessary use of materials. Consumers must choose products that maximize the usable lifespan and opportunities for continuous reuse. Companies must minimize the quantity and toxicity of materials used.
The value of products is maintained by reusing, repairing, or refurbishing for alternative uses.
Products are diverted from waste streams and recirculated into use. Resilient local markets are developed, allowing the highest and best use of materials.
5. Material Recovery
Component materials like cement, metals, or asphalt are recovered from mixed waste and collected for other applications.
In the U.S. alone, around 12 million tons of asphalt shingle tear-off waste and installation scrap are generated from roof installation each year. Currently, more than 90% of this is discarded in landfills. This material can be repurposed to create new products like liquid asphalt, fiber, and aggregate.
6. Residuals Management
Waste is biologically stabilized and sent to responsibly managed landfills.
The production of materials that are not recoverable and can negatively impact the environment must be avoided.
Reducing our Climate Impact
Reducing, recycling, and recovering materials can be a key part of a climate change strategy to reduce our greenhouse gas emissions.
According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, about 42% of all greenhouse gas emissions are caused by the production and use of goods, including food, products, and packaging.
Even though 100% zero waste may sound difficult to achieve in the near future, a zero waste approach is essential to reduce our impact on the environment.
Northstar Clean Technologies aims to become the leading recovery and reprocessing company for asphalt shingles in North America.
Money2 weeks ago
Mapping the Migration of the World’s Millionaires
Markets2 weeks ago
Visualizing the Coming Shift in Global Economic Power (2006-2036p)
Datastream3 weeks ago
Ranked: These Are 10 of the World’s Least Affordable Housing Markets
Demographics2 weeks ago
Mapped: A Decade of Population Growth and Decline in U.S. Counties
Misc3 weeks ago
Visualizing Well-Known Airlines by Fleet Composition
Markets4 weeks ago
Ranked: Visualizing the Largest Trading Partners of the U.S.
Misc2 weeks ago
Iconic Infographic Map Compares the World’s Mountains and Rivers
Markets6 days ago
Interest Rate Hikes vs. Inflation Rate, by Country