Race to Net Zero: Carbon Neutral Goals by Country
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Race to Net Zero: Carbon Neutral Goals by Country

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The following content is sponsored by the National Public Utilities Council

Race to Net Zero: Carbon Neutral Goals by Country

The time to talk about net zero goals is running out, and the time to put them into action is well underway.

At the U.S. Climate Summit in April 2021, U.S. President Biden pressured countries to either speed up carbon neutral pledges, or commit to them in the first place.

It’s a follow-up to the Paris Agreement, which keeps signatories committed to reaching carbon neutrality in emissions in the second half of the 21st century. But 2050–2100 is a wide timeframe, and climate change is becoming both increasingly present and more dire.

So when are countries committed to reaching net zero carbon emissions, and how serious is their pledge? This infographic from the National Public Utilities Council highlights the world’s carbon neutral pledges.

The Timeline of Carbon Neutral Targets by Country

The first question is how quickly countries are trying to get to net zero.

137 countries have committed to carbon neutrality, as tracked by the Energy and Climate Intelligence Unit and confirmed by pledges to the Carbon Neutrality Coalition and recent policy statements by governments.

But the earlier the pledge, the better, and most of the commitments are centered around 2050.

CountryTarget Year
BhutanAchieved
SurinameAchieved
Uruguay2030
Finland2035
Austria2040
Iceland2040
Germany2045
Sweden2045
Afghanistan2050
Andorra2050
Angola2050
Antigua and Barbuda2050
Argentina2050
Armenia2050
Bahamas2050
Bangladesh2050
Barbados2050
Belgium2050
Belize2050
Benin2050
Brazil2050
Bulgaria2050
Burkina Faso2050
Burundi2050
Cabo Verde2050
Cambodia2050
Canada2050
Central African Republic2050
Chad2050
Chile2050
Colombia2050
Comoros2050
Cook Islands2050
Costa Rica2050
Croatia2050
Cyprus2050
Czechia2050
Democratic Republic of Congo2050
Denmark2050
Djibouti2050
Dominica2050
Dominican Republic2050
Ecuador2050
Eritrea2050
Estonia2050
Ethiopia2050
European Union2050
Fiji2050
France2050
Gambia2050
Greece2050
Grenada2050
Guinea2050
Guinea-Bissau2050
Guyana2050
Haiti2050
Hungary2050
Ireland2050
Italy2050
Jamaica2050
Japan2050
Kiribati2050
Laos2050
Latvia2050
Lebanon2050
Lesotho2050
Liberia2050
Lithuania2050
Luxembourg2050
Madagascar2050
Malawi2050
Maldives2050
Mali2050
Malta2050
Marshall Islands2050
Mauritania2050
Mauritius2050
Mexico2050
Micronesia2050
Monaco2050
Mozambique2050
Myanmar2050
Namibia2050
Nauru2050
Nepal2050
Netherlands2050
New Zealand2050
Nicaragua2050
Niger2050
Niue2050
Norway2050
Pakistan2050
Palau2050
Panama2050
Papua New Guinea2050
Paraguay2050
Peru2050
Portugal2050
Romania2050
Rwanda2050
Saint Kitts and Nevis2050
Saint Lucia2050
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines2050
Samoa2050
Sao Tome and Principe2050
Senegal2050
Seychelles2050
Sierra Leone2050
Slovakia2050
Slovenia2050
Solomon Islands2050
Somalia2050
South Africa2050
South Korea2050
South Sudan2050
Spain2050
Sudan2050
Switzerland2050
Tanzania2050
Timor-Leste2050
Togo2050
Tonga2050
Trinidad and Tobago2050
Tuvalu2050
U.S.2050
Uganda2050
United Kingdom2050
Uzbekistan2050
Vanuatu2050
Vatican City2050
Yemen2050
Zambia2050
China2060
Kazakhstan2060
Ukraine2060
Australia2050 – 2100
Singapore2050 – 2100

As far as early achievers go, Bhutan and Suriname are the only two countries that have achieved carbon neutrality and are actually carbon negative (removing more carbon than they emit). Uruguay’s 2030 target is the earliest to try and match that feat, followed by Europe’s Finland, Austria, Iceland, Germany, and Sweden, who are all targeting 2045 or earlier.

Over 90%, or 124 of the 137 countries tracked above, set a target of 2050 for reaching carbon neutrality. This is largely due to membership in the Carbon Neutrality Coalition, which asks member states to target 2050 for their goal but leaves commitment up to them.

Only five countries have net zero pledges set for after 2050, including Australia and Singapore, which haven’t set a firm target yet. Targeting 2060, in addition to Ukraine and Kazakhstan, is the world’s largest emitter, China. The country’s recent pledge is significant, since China accounts for an estimated 25% of global emissions.

In fact, according to the Climate Action Tracker, 73% of global emissions are currently covered by net zero targets.

How Seriously Are Countries Committing to Carbon Neutrality?

Setting a goal is perhaps the easiest step towards carbon neutrality. But the real challenge is in solidifying that goal and starting to make progress towards it. That’s why it’s important to consider how deeply committed each country’s carbon neutral pledge truly is.

The most rigid commitments are enshrined in law, followed by official government policy, though the latter can change alongside governments. Likewise, proposed legislation shows forward momentum in making pledges a reality, but proposals can take a long time to become enacted (or get derailed).

As it turns out, the vast majority of carbon neutral targets are only under discussion, with no formal action being taken to act on them.

CountryTarget Status
BhutanAchieved
SurinameAchieved
DenmarkLaw
FranceLaw
HungaryLaw
New ZealandLaw
SwedenLaw
United KingdomLaw
AndorraPolicy Document
AustraliaPolicy Document
AustriaPolicy Document
BrazilPolicy Document
ChinaPolicy Document
Costa RicaPolicy Document
FinlandPolicy Document
GermanyPolicy Document
IcelandPolicy Document
IrelandPolicy Document
JapanPolicy Document
KazakhstanPolicy Document
Marshall IslandsPolicy Document
NorwayPolicy Document
PanamaPolicy Document
ParaguayPolicy Document
PortugalPolicy Document
SloveniaPolicy Document
South AfricaPolicy Document
SwitzerlandPolicy Document
U.S.Policy Document
UkrainePolicy Document
UzbekistanPolicy Document
Vatican CityPolicy Document
CanadaProposed Legislation
ChileProposed Legislation
European UnionProposed Legislation
FijiProposed Legislation
South KoreaProposed Legislation
SpainProposed Legislation
AfghanistanUnder Discussion
AngolaUnder Discussion
Antigua and BarbudaUnder Discussion
ArgentinaUnder Discussion
ArmeniaUnder Discussion
BahamasUnder Discussion
BangladeshUnder Discussion
BarbadosUnder Discussion
BelgiumUnder Discussion
BelizeUnder Discussion
BeninUnder Discussion
BulgariaUnder Discussion
Burkina FasoUnder Discussion
BurundiUnder Discussion
Cabo VerdeUnder Discussion
CambodiaUnder Discussion
Central African RepublicUnder Discussion
ChadUnder Discussion
ColombiaUnder Discussion
ComorosUnder Discussion
Cook IslandsUnder Discussion
CroatiaUnder Discussion
CyprusUnder Discussion
CzechiaUnder Discussion
Democratic Republic of CongoUnder Discussion
DjiboutiUnder Discussion
DominicaUnder Discussion
Dominican RepublicUnder Discussion
EcuadorUnder Discussion
EritreaUnder Discussion
EstoniaUnder Discussion
EthiopiaUnder Discussion
GambiaUnder Discussion
GreeceUnder Discussion
GrenadaUnder Discussion
GuineaUnder Discussion
Guinea-BissauUnder Discussion
GuyanaUnder Discussion
HaitiUnder Discussion
ItalyUnder Discussion
JamaicaUnder Discussion
KiribatiUnder Discussion
LaosUnder Discussion
LatviaUnder Discussion
LebanonUnder Discussion
LesothoUnder Discussion
LiberiaUnder Discussion
LithuaniaUnder Discussion
LuxembourgUnder Discussion
MadagascarUnder Discussion
MalawiUnder Discussion
MaldivesUnder Discussion
MaliUnder Discussion
MaltaUnder Discussion
MauritaniaUnder Discussion
MauritiusUnder Discussion
MexicoUnder Discussion
MicronesiaUnder Discussion
MonacoUnder Discussion
MozambiqueUnder Discussion
MyanmarUnder Discussion
NamibiaUnder Discussion
NauruUnder Discussion
NepalUnder Discussion
NetherlandsUnder Discussion
NicaraguaUnder Discussion
NigerUnder Discussion
NiueUnder Discussion
PakistanUnder Discussion
PalauUnder Discussion
Papua New GuineaUnder Discussion
PeruUnder Discussion
RomaniaUnder Discussion
RwandaUnder Discussion
Saint Kitts and NevisUnder Discussion
Saint LuciaUnder Discussion
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesUnder Discussion
SamoaUnder Discussion
Sao Tome and PrincipeUnder Discussion
SenegalUnder Discussion
SeychellesUnder Discussion
Sierra LeoneUnder Discussion
SingaporeUnder Discussion
SlovakiaUnder Discussion
Solomon IslandsUnder Discussion
SomaliaUnder Discussion
South SudanUnder Discussion
SudanUnder Discussion
TanzaniaUnder Discussion
Timor-LesteUnder Discussion
TogoUnder Discussion
TongaUnder Discussion
Trinidad and TobagoUnder Discussion
TuvaluUnder Discussion
UgandaUnder Discussion
UruguayUnder Discussion
VanuatuUnder Discussion
YemenUnder Discussion
ZambiaUnder Discussion

Uruguay’s 2030 target might be the earliest, but it is not yet set in stone. The earliest commitment actually enshrined in law is Sweden’s 2045 target.

Including Sweden, only six countries have passed their carbon neutral targets into law. They include Denmark, France, Hungary, New Zealand, and the UK.

An additional five countries have proposed legislation in the works, including Canada and South Korea, as well as the entirety of the EU.

Meanwhile, 24 countries have their climate targets set as official policy. They include Brazil, China, Germany and the U.S., some of the world’s largest emitters.

99 of the 137 pledges are only under discussion at this time, or more than 72%. That means that they have no official standing as of yet, and are harder to act on. But as time starts to pass, pressure on countries to act on their carbon neutral pledges is beginning to grow.

The National Public Utilities Council is the go-to resource for all things decarbonization in the utilities industry. Learn more.

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Smashing Atoms: The History of Uranium and Nuclear Power

Nuclear power is among the world’s cleanest sources of energy, but how did uranium and nuclear power come to be?

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uranium and nuclear power

The History of Uranium and Nuclear Power

Uranium has been around for millennia, but we only recently began to understand its unique properties.

Today, the radioactive metal fuels hundreds of nuclear reactors, enabling carbon-free energy generation across the globe. But how did uranium and nuclear power come to be?

The above infographic from the Sprott Physical Uranium Trust outlines the history of nuclear energy and highlights the role of uranium in producing clean energy.

From Discovery to Fission: Uncovering Uranium

Just like all matter, the history of uranium and nuclear energy can be traced back to the atom.

Martin Klaproth, a German chemist, first discovered uranium in 1789 by extracting it from a mineral called “pitchblende”. He named uranium after the then newly discovered planet, Uranus. But the history of nuclear power really began in 1895 when German engineer Wilhelm Röntgen discovered X-rays and radiation, kicking off a series of experiments and discoveries—including that of radioactivity.

In 1905, Albert Einstein set the stage for nuclear power with his famous theory relating mass and energy, E = mc2. Roughly 35 years later, Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassman confirmed his theory by firing neutrons into uranium atoms, which yielded elements lighter than uranium. According to Einstein’s theory, the mass lost during the reaction changed into energy. This demonstrated that fission—the splitting of one atom into lighter elements—had occurred.

“Nuclear energy is incomparably greater than the molecular energy which we use today.”

—Winston Churchill, 1955.

Following the discovery of fission, scientists worked to develop a self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction. In 1939, a team of French scientists led by Frédéric Joliot-Curie demonstrated that fission can cause a chain reaction and filed the first patent on nuclear reactors.

Later in 1942, a group of scientists led by Enrico Fermi and Leo Szilard set off the first nuclear chain reaction through the Chicago Pile-1. Interestingly, they built this makeshift reactor using graphite bricks on an abandoned squash court in the University of Chicago.

These experiments proved that uranium could produce energy through fission. However, the first peaceful use of nuclear fission did not come until 1951, when Experimental Breeder Reactor I (EBR-1) in Idaho generated the first electricity sourced from nuclear power.

The Power of the Atom: Nuclear Power and Clean Energy

Nuclear reactors harness uranium’s properties to generate energy without any greenhouse gas emissions. While uranium’s radioactivity makes it unique, it has three other properties that stand out:

  • Material Density: Uranium has a density of 19.1g/cm3, making it one of the densest metals on Earth. For reference, it is nearly as heavy (and dense) as gold.
  • Abundance: At 2.8 parts per million, uranium is approximately 700 times more abundant than gold, and 37 times more abundant than silver.
  • Energy Density: Uranium is extremely energy-dense. A one-inch tall uranium pellet contains the same amount of energy as 120 gallons of oil.

Thanks to its high energy density, the use of uranium fuel makes nuclear power more efficient than other energy sources. This includes renewables like wind and solar, which typically require much more land (and more units) to generate the same amount of electricity as a single nuclear reactor.

But nuclear power offers more than just a smaller land footprint. It’s also one of the cleanest and most reliable energy sources available today, poised to play a major role in the energy transition.

The Future of Uranium and Nuclear Power

Although nuclear power is often left out of the clean energy conversation, the ongoing energy crisis has brought it back into focus.

Several countries are going nuclear in a bid to reduce reliance on fossil fuels while building reliable energy grids. For example, nuclear power is expected to play a prominent role in the UK’s plan to reach net-zero carbon emissions by 2050. Furthermore, Japan recently approved restarts at three of its nuclear reactors after initially phasing out nuclear power following the Fukushima accident.

The resurgence of nuclear power, in addition to reactors that are already under construction, will likely lead to higher demand for uranium—especially as the world embraces clean energy.

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Showcasing the Strength of Canadian Gold Mining

Canadian gold mining has grown to become a highly prolific industry, thanks to its geological riches and political stability.

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gold mining canada

Showcasing the Strength of Canadian Gold Mining

Gold mining has long played an integral role in shaping Canada’s cities and its modern day economy. The gold mining infrastructure that was built alongside the country’s towns in the 19th century has grown to provide $21.6 billion worth of exports for Canada in 2020.

When combined with the country’s superb geology, Canada’s jurisdictional strengths make it one of the most prolific and secure locations in the world for mining companies to explore, develop, and produce gold.

This infographic sponsored by Clarity Gold dives into how Canada has grown into a nation built for gold mining. Both in how the country facilitates the production of gold, and how the gold mining industry supports Canada’s economy and local communities.

Canada’s Golden Geology and Production

Gold is scattered across the Canadian landscape in a variety of gold mining regions and districts, with the most prolific located between Ontario and Québec.

The 2 billion year-old Archean greenstone belt that arcs through the centre of the Canadian shield provides the foundation for the Abitibi gold belt, which has produced more than 190Moz of gold.

Gold Mining District/RegionProvinces/TerritoriesGold Produced (million troy ounces)
Abitibi Greenstone BeltOntario and Québec>190Moz
Trans-Hudson CorridorSaskatchewan and Manitoba>40Moz
Red LakeOntario>30Moz
Golden TriangleBritish Columbia>5Moz

Source: Resource World

The Trans-Hudson corridor in Saskatchewan and Manitoba has produced more than 40Moz of gold, while the Red Lake mining district of eastern Ontario and the Golden Triangle in British Columbia have delivered >30Moz and >5Moz respectively.

Last year, Canada’s top 10 mines produced 3.26 million ounces of gold combined, equating to more than $6 billion worth of the yellow precious metal.

MineProvince/TerritoryPrimary Owner/Operator2020 Gold Production (thousand troy ounces)
Canadian MalarticQuébecYamana/Agnico Eagle569Koz
Detour LakeOntarioKirkland Lake517Koz
LaRonde (incl. LZ5)QuébecAgnico Eagle350Koz
BrucejackBritish ColumbiaPretium348Koz
PorcupineOntarioNewmont319Koz
MeliadineNunavutAgnico Eagle312Koz
Rainy RiverOntarioNew Gold229Koz
HemloOntarioBarrick Gold223Koz
MeadowbankNunavutAgnico Eagle209Koz
MacassaOntarioKirkland Lake183Koz

Source: Kitco

Ontario and Québec are the powerhouse provinces of Canadian gold production, hosting 30 mines between the two provinces.

A Nation Built for Gold Mining

Canada’s politically secure nature and established permitting process has resulted in five of the 10 largest gold mining companies having projects in Canada. Three Canadian provinces (Saskatchewan, Québec, and Newfoundland & Labrador) are among the world’s 10 most attractive mining investment jurisdictions according to the Fraser Institute’s 2020 survey of mining companies.

Beyond the legal and permitting strengths of the nation, Canada’s extensive network of capital markets has enabled the Canadian companies to dominate the world’s gold mining industry. With Agnico Eagle and Kirkland Lake’s upcoming merger, three of the world’s top five gold mining companies will be headquartered in Canada.

The Canadian equity markets are a key driver of the world’s gold exploration and development funding, with the TSX having raised $7.5 billion in mining equity capital in 2020. Gold still remains the major driver of these money flows, with gold mining companies making up more than half of Canada’s mining exploration budget.

How Gold Mining Gives Back to Canada

Ever since the first discoveries of gold across Canada in the 1800s, the development and production of gold mines has been the foundation for many towns and merchants across the nation.

Today, Canada’s mining industry directly employs more than 392,000 Canadians, with the sector offering the highest average annual industrial rate of pay in the country at $123,000. The industry is also proportionally the largest private sector employer of Indigenous peoples in Canada.

From the nation’s prolific gold deposits to its network of funding through robust public markets for mining equities, gold mining has grown into one of Canada’s most important strengths. The discovery, development, and production of the precious metal will remain an essential pillar of Canada’s economy.

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