On the Edge of Discovery: Canada’s Next Gold District
Canada is home to some of the greatest gold districts in mining history. These regions occur mostly across Ontario, Québec, and British Columbia, where past mineral exploration has uncovered their geological potential.
But Canada is vast, and there are still more regions to explore—in particular, the Trans-Hudson Corridor. It’s here that SKRR Exploration and Taiga Gold are leading the way into a new mineral frontier, with the hope of uncovering Canada’s next gold district.
Canada’s Major Gold Districts
The Abitibi Greenstone Gold Belt, the Red Lake Gold District, and the Golden Triangle are key sources of gold in Canada.
- Ontario and Québec’s Abitibi Greenstone Gold Belt:
With over 100 mines, this gold belt stretches across the provinces of Ontario and Québec from Wawa to Val-d’Or. The belt has produced a massive 180M ounces of gold over its history and remains today a source of gold and employment in Northern Ontario.
- Ontario’s Red Lake Gold District:
The Red Lake Gold District experienced its first gold rush following initial discoveries in 1897 and 1925. With over 30M ounces of gold produced since then, the Red Lake mining district is one of the largest and highest-grade gold camps in North America.
- British Columbia’s Golden Triangle:
Having hosted the Stikine Gold Rush and the Atlin Gold Rush, the Golden Triangle is a popular destination for exploration companies. Investment in the region has produced 5.26M ounces of gold and impressive discoveries such as the Bruce Jack mine and the Kerr-Sulphurets-Mitchell (“KSM”) project.
Although these regions have garnered attention from large mining companies, the Trans-Hudson Corridor is open for a new era of discovery, and very few companies have taken advantage of it.
The Trans-Hudson Corridor: Canada’s Next Gold District?
The Trans-Hudson Corridor lacks an extensive exploration history, but it shows potential as a prime area for discovery.
The Trans-Hudson Corridor stretches from the Dakotas of the United States to James Bay in Canada. One of the few remaining exposed portions of the Trans-Hudson, the Black Hills region of South Dakota, hosts the famous Homestake Mine, which produced 43.7 million ounces of gold and 9.9M ounces of silver before closing in 2001.
Despite the geological potential of this corridor, there have only been a few operating gold mines in the northern portion of the Trans-Hudson. One study indicates there may be more gold mineralization near the Snow Lake mine.
Saskatchewan: Major Gold Mines and a Lack of Exploration
Saskatchewan has geological potential—but compared to other regions, explorers are barely scratching the surface.
For all of Canada in 2018, mining and exploration investment amounted to C$2.2 billion. Saskatchewan received some of the lowest amounts with only C$165 million expended. Only 2% of the $165 million went towards exploration for gold, while the rest for uranium and potash.
Canada: Safe and Stable Mining Jurisdiction
The Trans-Hudson Corridor offers a safe, stable, and accessible mining region in today’s volatile world. In particular, Saskatchewan provides a competitive edge for mineral exploration:
- Affordable access to North American capital markets
- Mineral exploration incentive programs
- Low-cost, high-quality road and power infrastructure
- A well educated and professional workforce
Canada has the geological potential for big gold discoveries and the next era of discovery could be waiting in the Trans-Hudson Corridor.
Investing in Core Cybersecurity Technology
How is the growing cybersecurity market evolving? This graphic highlights the core technology developments and market growth underway.
Investing in Core Cybersecurity Technology
The world has become increasingly more digital—with everything from customer data and employee services to entire businesses living on servers—and in recent years cybercrime has become a constant threat.
After large-scale breaches in government organisations around the world and huge public companies like Sony, cybersecurity is being taken more seriously. And since 2016, the U.S. has seen at least 1,000 data breaches every single year, exposing billions more records.
But in a field where new exploits are just around the corner, and with COVID-19 driving more employees and services remote than ever before, the need for better cybersecurity technology and investment has reached critical importance.
This infographic from eToro highlights developments in the cybersecurity market and how they affect companies, consumers, and investors.
The Cybersecurity Landscape
No person or organisation is immune to cybercrime, but some are targeted more frequently.
Across businesses, cybercriminals look for exploits in sectors with either the most to lose in terms of financials or data, or they target sectors with the least protection.
Unsurprisingly, the top industry targeted by cybercrime in 2020 was financial services. But cybercriminals also focused on manufacturing, energy, and retail—industries forced to quickly shift to digital channels because of the pandemic, but without the time to adapt and safeguard.
|Top Industries Targeted by Cybercrime||% Targeted (2020)|
Though targeting is inconsistent across industries, financial impact is significant across the board.
In Europe, the average annual cost inflicted by cybercrime for affected organisations in 2019 ranged from $8 million in Italy to $13 million in Germany. In the U.S., the average annual cost of cybercrime was over $27 million.
|Organisation Base Country||Average Annual Cost of Cybercrime (2019)|
But in terms of volume, the most common cybersecurity threat is faced by individuals instead of companies. In addition to being a common target for cybercriminals attempting to access company data, consumers faced four times as many attacks as enterprises in 2019.
The Future Cybersecurity Need
The growth of cybercrime activity and adjacent cybersecurity investment over the last few decades was already impressive, but a post-COVID world puts the digital market front and center.
In the U.S., the cybersecurity market was valued at $156.5 billion in 2019, with more than half of the market focused on services over software and hardware. In 2027, the market is estimated to be worth $326.4 billion, a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 10%, with the focus remaining the same.
The driver of software and hardware usage is consistent with more aspects of business and personal life digitising, but growth in services is aligned with the uncertainty of future cybersecurity issues.
Winning the Fight Against Cybercrime
Cybersecurity and cybercrime grow and build off each other in a never-ending cycle, driving a need for increased investment alongside them.
The Cybersecurity Technology Cycle:
- Increased cyber operations incidents: Cybersecurity operations incidents increase as a result of the overwhelming burden of complexity.
- Add technology: Vendors pitch new technology as the solution to cyber operations incidents.
- Add people and process: New technology requires more people and processes.
- Operational complexity increases: Interactions between technology, processes and people increase geometrically.
- Loss of process visibility and control: Fog of uncertainty develops, old management systems are overwhelmed.
- Poor human performance: Technology and process complexity decrease cybersecurity effectiveness.
- Repeat 1)
As new devices and software come online, old methods used by cybercriminals for infiltration or data gathering are replaced with new ones.
In 2019, the most commonly used initial access methods were phishing (31%), scan & exploit (30%) and unauthorised credential usage (29%), with compromise of mobile devices only accounting for 2%. With more work going offline and onto personal devices post-pandemic, and increasingly so post-digitisation, those numbers are likely to fluctuate.
That’s why the cybersecurity market is expected to keep growing in importance and size over the coming decade. An increasingly digital world is putting more risk online as well, and as many companies have learned the hard way, cybersecurity is a core technology worth investing in.
How Can Investors Take Part?
eToro’s CyberSecurity CopyPortfolio* gives investors direct access to the growing cybersecurity market.
Curated by experienced and proven investment teams, the thematic portfolio offers exposure to a broad range of developers and companies invested in cybersecurity, with no management fees.
*Your capital is at risk.
CopyPortfolios is a portfolio management product, provided by eToro Europe Ltd., which is authorised and regulated by the Cyprus Securities and Exchange Commission.
CopyPortfolios should not be considered as exchange traded funds, nor as hedge funds.
Canada’s Gold Exploration Frontier: The Abitibi Greenstone Belt
The Abitibi greenstone belt has produced more than 200 million ounces of gold since 1901. Learn more about the Abitibi belt’s history, mining activity, and potential for discovery in this infographic.
The Abitibi: Canada’s Largest Gold District
Canada is home to many great gold districts, but none come close to the Abitibi greenstone belt.
Having produced over 200 million ounces of gold since 1901, the Abitibi belt has etched its place as Canada’s largest gold district. Today, the region is bustling with exploration activity and hosts three of the country’s largest gold mines.
The above infographic from Maple Gold Mines showcases what makes the Abitibi a prolific gold district, from its history and geology to current activity and the potential for discovery.
The Abitibi Greenstone Belt: Remarkable Geology and History
Over 2.6 billion years ago, the Earth’s natural processes of creation and destruction resulted in the formation of metal-rich volcanic rocks and deformation zones that comprise the Abitibi greenstone belt.
The Abitibi belt hosts several economically viable deposits of gold, silver, zinc, iron, copper, and other base metals. The types of deposits found there include gold-rich quartz-carbonate veins, copper porphyries, and volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits.
Since mining began in the early 1900s, more than 124 mines have been set up in the Abitibi, and at least 15 of these have yielded over 3.5 million ounces of gold. What’s more, the total gold content of the belt, including past production and current reserves and resources, exceeds 300 million ounces.
The majority of the Abitibi’s rich gold deposits lie along fault lines in major deformation zones such as the Cadillac-Larder Lake zone and the Destor-Porcupine zone. These deposits are the foundations of gold camps that boast historical production numbers in excess of 10 million ounces of gold.
Despite a mining history that spans over 100 years, the Abitibi belt remains an active mining region with plenty of potential for new discoveries.
Mining Activity and the Potential for Discovery
With one end in Wawa, Ontario, and the other in Chibougamau, Quebec, the Abitibi’s location spans two jurisdictions that offer various advantages for mining companies.
Ontario and Quebec are two of Canada’s top mining jurisdictions with 2019 exploration expenditures of $432.4 million and $496.7 million, respectively. Mining companies in the Abitibi benefit not only from its rich resource endowment but also from the infrastructure, skilled workforces, and mining-friendly policies in its jurisdictions.
In fact, the Abitibi has produced around $12 billion in mining M&A transactions since 2013.
|Year||Buyer/Investor||Target||Value (US$, millions)|
|2014||Yamana Gold, Agnico Eagle||Osisko Mining||$3,600|
|2014||Osisko Gold Royalties||Virginia Mines||$424|
|2015||Kirkland Lake Gold||St. Andrew Goldfields||$134|
|2016||Tahoe Resources||Lake Shore Gold||$538|
|2017||Alamos Gold||Richmont Mines Ltd||$764|
|2017||Eldorado Gold||Integra Gold||$432|
|2017||Osisko Gold Royalties||Orion Mine Finance*||$864|
|2018||Bonterra Resources||Metanor Resources||$60|
|2019||Kirkland Lake Gold||Detour Lake||$3,700|
|2020||Yamana Gold||Monarch Gold*||$114|
|2021||Eldorado Gold||QMX Gold||$105|
*Osisko Gold Royalties bought a portfolio of royalties from Orion Mine Finance and Yamana Gold bought two properties from Monarch Gold.
Back in 2014, Yamana Gold and Agnico Eagle each bought a 50% stake in Osisko Mining for a total of $3.6 billion to own Osisko’s flagship Canadian Malartic Mine, Canada’s largest gold mine. In a similarly-sized transaction in 2019, Kirkland Lake Gold acquired the Detour Lake mine—the second-largest gold mine in the country, for $3.7 billion. Both of these mines share a common home—the Abitibi greenstone belt.
The Legacy Continues
The Abitibi belt remains a hub for mining activity with Canada’s largest gold mines and 28 exploration projects on the hunt for precious metals and the next wave of M&A transactions.
With its rich history, remarkable geology, and plenty of gold left to discover, the Abitibi greenstone belt’s legacy as one of the world’s most important gold districts will continue.
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