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Visualizing the Most Populous Countries in the World

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The Most Populous Countries in the World
countries by population

Visualizing the Most Populous Countries in the World

India’s population is projected to surpass China’s as soon as 2022.

While this is consequential on a global economic level, it also leaves other population trends overlooked. For instance, Nigeria is projected to have more people than the U.S., the world’s third-largest country by population, by the year 2050.

This treemap visualization, adapted from PopulationPyramid.net, is an overview of the global population in 2020, showing us the world’s most populous countries.

The 50 Most Populous Countries

China, with a population of 1.44 billion, is the most populous country worldwide.

In 2019, over 60% of its population resided in urban centers, a trend that has seen the portion of city dwellers double over the last 25 years. For context, 83% of the U.S. population lives in cities, while just 35% of India’s population dwells in urban areas.

Together, China and India’s populations make up over 36% of the global total.

 CountryPopulation (2020)
1🇨🇳 China1,439,323,774
2🇮🇳 India1,380,004,385
3🇺🇸 U.S.331,002,647
4🇮🇩 Indonesia273,523,621
5🇵🇰 Pakistan220,892,331
6🇧🇷 Brazil212,559,409
7🇳🇬 Nigeria206,139,587
8🇧🇩 Bangladesh164,689,383
9🇷🇺 Russian Federation145,934,460
10🇲🇽 Mexico128,932,753
11🇯🇵 Japan126,476,458
12🇪🇹 Ethiopia114,963,583
13🇵🇭 Philippines109,581,085
14🇪🇬 Egypt102,334,403
15🇻🇳 Vietnam97,338,583
16🇨🇩 D.R. Congo89,561,404
17🇹🇷 Turkey84,339,067
18🇮🇷 Iran83,992,953
19🇩🇪 Germany83,783,945
20🇹🇭 Thailand69,799,978
21🇬🇧 United Kingdom67,886,004
22🇫🇷 France65,273,512
23🇮🇹 Italy60,461,828
24🇹🇿 Tanzania59,734,213
25🇿🇦 South Africa59,308,690
26🇲🇲 Myanmar54,409,794
27🇰🇪Kenya53,771,300
28🇰🇷 Republic of Korea51,269,183
29🇨🇴 Colombia50,882,884
30🇪🇸 Spain46,754,783
31🇺🇬 Uganda45,741,000
32🇦🇷 Argentina45,195,777
33🇩🇿 Algeria43,851,043
34🇸🇩 Sudan43,849,269
35🇺🇦 Ukraine43,733,759
36🇮🇶 Iraq40,222,503
37🇦🇫 Afghanistan38,928,341
38🇵🇱 Poland37,846,605
39🇨🇦 Canada37,742,157
40🇲🇦 Morocco36,910,558
41🇸🇦 Saudi Arabia34,813,867
42🇺🇿 Uzbekistan33,469,199
43🇵🇪 Peru32,971,846
44🇦🇴 Angola32,866,268
45🇲🇾 Malaysia32,365,998
46🇲🇿 Mozambique31,255,435
47🇬🇭 Ghana31,072,945
48🇾🇪 Yemen29,825,968
49🇳🇵 Nepal29,136,808
50🇻🇪 Venezuela28,435,943

Extending over 17,000 islands, Indonesia comes fourth among the world’s most populous countries, standing at 273.5 million people.

Pakistan comes in fifth, with 220.8 million. Karachi, located on the southeastern coast of Pakistan, is home to over 16 million people alone. It is Pakistan’s most populous city, and the seventh-largest city in the world.

Nigeria also makes it onto the list. In just three decades, the country’s population is projected to climb from 206 million to 400 million—growing at a percentage clip that is more than double that of India.

The 50 Least Populous Countries

Combined, the 50 least-populous countries make up under 0.4% of the total world population. By contrast, the top 50 account for 87% of the total.

Unsurprisingly, the world’s low population nations are situated on small islands, often tropical and reliant on tourism.

 CountryPopulation*
1🇻🇦 Vatican City799
2🇹🇰 Tokelau1,340
3🇳🇺 Niue1,615
4🇫🇰 Falkland Islands3,377
5🇲🇸 Montserrat4,989
6🇵🇲 Saint Pierre and Miquelon5,822
7🇸🇭 Saint Helena6,059
8🇳🇷 Nauru10,756
9🇼🇫 Wallis and Futuna11,432
10🇹🇻 Tuvalu11,646
11🇦🇮 Anguilla14,869
12🇨🇰 Cook Islands17,548
13🇵🇼 Palau18,008
14🇧🇶 Caribbean Netherlands25,979
15🇻🇬 British Virgin Islands30,030
16🇬🇮 Gibraltar33,701
17🇸🇲 San Marino33,860
18🇱🇮 Liechtenstein38,019
19🇹🇨 Turks and Caicos Islands38,191
20🇲🇨 Monaco38,964
21🇸🇽 Sint Maarten42,388
22🇫🇴 Faroe Islands48,678
23🇰🇳 Saint Kitts and Nevis52,823
24🇦🇸 American Samoa55,312
25🇲🇵 Northern Mariana Islands56,188
26🇬🇱 Greenland56,672
27🇲🇭 Marshall Islands58,791
28🇧🇲 Bermuda62,506
29🇰🇾 Cayman Islands64,948
30🇩🇲 Dominica71,808
31🇦🇩 Andorra77,142
32🇮🇲 Isle of Man84,584
33🇦🇬 Antigua and Barbuda97,118
34🇸🇨 Seychelles97,739
35🇻🇮 United States Virgin Islands104,578
36🇦🇼 Aruba106,314
37🇻🇨 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines110,589
38🇹🇴 Tonga110,940
39🇬🇩 Grenada112,003
40🇫🇲 Micronesia (Fed. States of)113,815
41🇰🇮 Kiribati117,606
42🇨🇼 Curaçao163,424
43🇬🇺 Guam167,294
44Channel Islands172,259
45🇱🇨 Saint Lucia182,790
46🇼🇸 Samoa197,097
47🇸🇹 São Tomé and Príncipe215,056
48Mayotte266,150
49🇵🇫 French Polynesia279,287
50🇬🇫 French Guiana282,731

*Source: United Nations, as of July 1, 2019. Includes territories.

With a total of 799 residents in 2019, Vatican City is the least populated country. Following close behind is the territory of Tokelau, a cluster of islands situated between New Zealand and Hawaii.

The Caribbean island nation of Antigua and Barbuda is also among the smallest populations in the world, with just 97,118 inhabitants. While it may be small in terms of total inhabitants, its population density is another story—with over 222 people per square kilometer. That is roughly 50% higher than China, but about half the population density of India.

Meanwhile, the 33 pacific islands of Kiribati also make the top 50 list of the least populous countries worldwide. With a population of 117,606, Kiribati was a testing site for atomic bombs by the British and Americans during the 1960s. The island reached independence in 1979, after being under crown colonial rule since 1916.

Regional Median Ages

How about the median ages across these populations?

By far, the African region has the lowest median age at 19.8 years old, partially driven by a high birth rate of 4.7 children per woman. In contrast, the global average falls around 2.5 children.

By 2050, Africa’s population will effectively double from 1.3 billion to 2.5 billion.

RegionAnnual Rate of Natural Population IncreaseMedian Age (2020)
Africa2.5%19.8 years
Asia0.9%32.1 years
Central America1.2%28.3 years
Europe-0.1%42.7 years
Latin America & Caribbean0.9%30.9 years
Northern America0.3%38.6 years
Oceania0.9%33.5 years
South America0.9%32.0 years
World1.0%30.9 years

Source: Our World in Data

On the other hand, Europe is the oldest, at 42.7 years for this demographic metric.

With a median age of 47.9, Italy has the second-oldest population in the world, topped only by Japan. Meanwhile, Germany (46.6), Portugal (46.2), and Spain (45.5) fall next in line. If current trends continue, by 2050, half of Europe’s population will be non-working and over the age of 65.

That said, it should be noted that this trend is not exclusive to Europe. In 30 years, 1.5 billion people globally will be over the age of 65, amounting to 16% of the global population.

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Energy

The Periodic Table of Commodity Returns (2021 Edition)

Which commodity had the best returns in 2020? From gold to oil, we show how commodity price performance stacks up over the last decade.

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The Periodic Table of Commodity Returns (2011-2020)

Being a commodity investor can feel like riding a roller coaster.

Take silver. Typically known for sharp, idiosyncratic price movements, it faced double-digit declines in the first half of the decade, falling over 35% in just 2013 alone. By contrast, it jumped over 47% in 2020. Similarly, oil, corn, and others witnessed either steep declines or rapid gains.

The above graphic from U.S. Global Investors traces 10 years of commodity price performance, highlighting 14 different commodities and their annual ranking over the years.

Commodity Price Performance, From Best to Worst

Which commodities were the top performers in 2020?

The aforementioned silver tripled its returns year-over-year, climbing 47.9% in 2020. In July, the metal actually experienced its strongest month since 1979.

RankCommodity
Return (2020)
Return (2019)
Return (2018)
1Silver47.9%15.2%-8.5%
2Copper26.0%3.4%-17.5%
3Palladium25.9%54.2%18.6%
4Gold25.1%18.3%-1.6%
5Corn24.8%3.4%6.9%
6Zinc19.7%-9.5%-24.5%
7Nickel18.7%31.6%-16.5%
8Gas16.0%-25.5%-0.4%
9Wheat14.6%11.0%17.9%
10Platinum10.9%21.5%-14.5%
11Aluminum10.8%-4.4%-17.4%
12Lead3.3%-4.7%-19.2%
13Coal-1.3%-18.0%-22.2%
14Oil-20.5%34.5%-24.8%

Along with silver, at least seven other commodities had stronger returns than the S&P 500 in 2020, which closed off the year with 16.3% gains. This included copper (26.0%), palladium (25.9%), gold (25.1%) and corn (24.8%).

Interestingly, copper prices moved in an unconventional pattern compared to gold in 2020. Often, investors rush to gold in uncertain economic climates, while sectors such as construction and manufacturing—which both rely heavily on copper—tend to decline. Instead, both copper and gold saw their prices rise in conjunction.

Nowadays, copper is also a vital material in electric vehicles (EVs), with recent demand for EVs also influencing the price of copper.

Silver Linings

As investors flocked to safety, silver’s price reached heights not seen since 2010.

The massive scale of monetary and fiscal stimulus led to inflationary fears, also boosting the price of silver. How does this compare to its returns over the last decade?

silver returns 2011-2020

In 2013, silver crashed over 35% as confidence grew in global markets. By contrast, in 2016, the Brexit referendum stirred uncertainty in global markets. Investors allocated money in silver, and prices shifted upwards.

As Gold as the Hills

Like silver, market uncertainty has historically boosted the price of gold.

What else contributed to gold’s rise?

  • U.S. debt continues to climb, pushing down confidence in the U.S. dollar
  • A weaker U.S. dollar makes gold cheaper for other countries to buy
  • Low interest rates kept the returns of other safe haven assets low, making gold more attractive by comparison

Here’s how the price of gold has changed in recent years.

gold returns 2011-2020

Gold faced its steepest recent declines in 2013, when the Federal Reserve bank discussed tapering down its quantitative easing program in light of economic recovery.

Hitting the Brakes On Oil

Oil suffered the worst commodity price performance in 2020, with -20.5% returns.

For the first time in history, oil prices went negative as demand plummeted. To limit its oversupply, oil producers shrunk investment, closed wells, and turned off valves. Unfortunately, many companies still faced bankruptcies. By November, 45 oil producers had proceeded with bankruptcy filings year-to-date.

This stood in stark contrast to 2019, when prices soared 34.5%.

oil returns 2011-2020

As is custom for oil, prices see-sawed over the decade. In 2016 and 2019, it witnessed gains of over 30%. However, like 2020, in 2014 it saw huge losses due to an oversupply of global petroleum.

In 2020, total production cuts hit 7.2 million barrels a day in December, equal to 7% of global demand, in response to COVID-19.

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Mining

Why Gold Mining Stocks Outperform Gold in Bull Markets

Gold mining stocks outpace gold returns in bull markets, but how? With higher gold prices, miners get ahead thanks to operating leverage.

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Gold Mining Stocks in Gold Bull Market

Why Gold Mining Stocks Outperform Gold in Bull Markets

Gold is highly revered for its great returns and resilience during economic downturns, but during gold bull markets there’s something that regularly provides even greater returns: the ownership of gold mining stocks.

Over the past 20 years, gold mining stocks have outperformed the price of gold bullion in bull markets, offering what can be seen as a leveraged play on gold’s price appreciation.

While gold miners offer more potential upside, they also have higher volatility and greater downside during dips, making market timing and strong hands all the more important.

This infographic comes to us from Sprott and compares the returns of gold stocks and gold bullion in bull markets. It also explains how gold stocks outperform thanks to profit expansion, and shows why there might be more upside for gold miners to come.

How Operating Leverage Benefits Gold Mining Companies

During the 2000-2011 gold bull market, the price of physical gold rose 550%. While you might think that number is hard to beat, over the same period of time gold mining equities (represented by the NYSE Arca Gold Miners Index) returned more than 690%.

In the current gold bull market which started in 2015, gold mining stocks are up more than 182%, more than doubling gold bullion’s 78% returns.

This outperformance in bull markets is largely due to how gold mining companies use their operating leverage to maximize profits, resulting in their share prices appreciating.

Breaking Down Gold Mining Costs and Profits

As a gold mining company mines and produces gold, the gold is sold on the market fairly quickly to avoid the risk of gold’s price depreciating.

When the price of gold rises, miners immediately start to see greater profits from selling their ounces on the market. While the costs to mine gold also rise in bull markets, they rise less and at a slower rate.

The result of this is profit expansion: when operationally efficient gold mining companies are able to capture larger profits, resulting in increased operating and free cash flow.

Breakdown of Barrick Gold’s Profit per Ounce of Gold

YearAll-in Sustaining Costs/oz (in USD)Realized Gold Price/oz (in USD)Profit/oz (in USD)
2015$831$1,157$326
2016$730$1,248$518
2017$750$1,258$508
2018$806$1,267$461
2019$894$1,396$502
2020$984$1,748$764

During the current gold bull run which started in 2015, Barrick Gold’s average realized price per troy ounce of gold increased by 50%, while their all-in sustaining costs per troy ounce only went up by 18%.

This has resulted in the company increasing their profit per ounce of gold sold by a staggering 134% over the past six years.

Making the Most of Golden Times

While higher profit margins during bull markets are great, it’s up to the individual company to ensure the extra cash is being used prudently to efficiently support their operations.

Bull markets don’t last forever, and gold miners must use these prosperous times to strengthen their balance sheets, reward shareholders, and reinvest into projects which will provide future value and returns.

Dividend-paying gold stocks increase dividends to reward loyal shareholders, with the average dividend increase of top gold mining stocks in a bull market often doubling.

Over the decades, companies have gotten better at making the most of bull markets in order to be well-guarded for when gold prices stop appreciating, and eventually start declining.

Why Gold Mining Stocks May Still Be Undervalued

Even if gold mining stocks have already seen impressive returns over the past five years, there are some technical indicators which point to them still being undervalued compared to other equities and gold bullion.

  • The top 10 gold mining companies have seen their earnings per share estimates almost triple in the past two years.
  • The top 20 S&P 500 companies have seen around a -15% decline in their earnings per share estimates.

Along with having better earnings per share compared to the top U.S. equities, gold mining stocks may also be undervalued compared to gold bullion.

The gold mining stocks to gold bullion ratio is at historically low levels after having dropped more than 60% following the 2008 financial crisis. While gold bullion is increasingly seen as a safe haven asset for investors, gold miners are still overlooked despite their strong technicals.

Gold and Gold Miners’ Role in the Future Economy

As money printing has been the Federal Reserve’s main answer to an increasingly volatile economic climate, gold and its producers are set to play a crucial role in helping investors preserve their wealth.

Gold has yet again outperformed just about every other asset class in 2020, and gold miners offer even greater returns for those willing to manage the additional risk they present.

Gold mining stocks are much more volatile compared to gold bullion, and have a variety of additional risks dependent on their company structure, jurisdiction of operations, and operational efficiency. But for investors who are looking for exceptional returns in gold bull markets, they can be an alluring option.

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