The March of the Zombie Miners Continues [Chart]
New report shows that over half (52%) of all Canadian-listed mining companies are zombies
The Chart of the Week is a weekly Visual Capitalist feature on Fridays.
Canada has a reputation worldwide as the epicenter for mining exploration, and over the years the country’s junior-listed companies have created billions of dollars in wealth through new mineral discoveries.
However, these days, Canada is home to a horror story that seems to haunt investors more each year: 52% of all Canadian mining stocks are now “zombies”, and together the walking dead combine for a total of -$2.8 billion in negative working capital.
The “Zombie” Backstory
It was just over a year ago that Tony Simon, President of Seguro Consulting, brought to our attention the initial problem of the zombie miners.
In this case, his “zombie” definition referred to mining exploration companies that had negative working capital and therefore did not meet the Continuous Listing Requirements (CLR) for the TSX and TSX-V stock exchanges.
Our chart from last year called “A Miner Problem” detailed these requirements, while also showing the ugly state of the 589 listed companies’ balance sheets. Many of these companies have negative working capital because they have no real assets that can be monetized, while being saddled with mounting costs or unsustainable debt.
Zombie Survival Tactics
Break out your Zombie Survival Kit, because we now have another year’s worth of information from Mr. Simon, who is a CPA by designation.
Here are the stats that caught our eye, most of which are also included in this week’s chart:
- The number of zombie miners increased from 589 to 669.
- Zombies now make up 52% (up from 40%) of all mining companies in Canada listed on TSX and TSX-V exchanges.
- The average zombie has had negative working capital for 44 months.
- Negative working capital of all zombie companies increased by 31.6% from -$2.15 billion (2015) to -$2.83 billion (2016).
Of the original 589 zombies, 398 (68%) stayed as zombies the following year, and were counted towards 2016’s total. Mr. Simon provided us with some additional stats on the companies carried forward:
- 51% of the zombies have share prices of $0.025 or less.
- Only 13 zombies had $1,000,000 or more of liquidity in the last quarter.
- Meanwhile, an astonishing 68% of zombies traded with less than $50,000 of liquidity last quarter.
- 55% of zombies have market capitalizations of less than $1 million.
In other words, these zombies don’t eat brains for breakfast. Instead, they munch on capital from private placements until no one is willing to feed them.
So why do they continue to exist?
More Zombies, More Problems
From the perspective of the zombie management teams, it makes sense why they still roam the streets in search of capital or a stroke of luck. Just read this post by an anonymous CEO of a zombie company. To sum up: they continue to exist because of fiduciary duty to their shareholders.
However, it gets tougher to explain their existence from other angles.
How does the exchange justify keeping them around? Mr. Simon has been poking at this with a stick to try and get an answer. After all, retail investors have a tough enough time as it is, even without 52% of the total selection of companies being extreme long shots.
Here’s hoping that normalizing commodity prices in gold, silver, zinc, and other metals will help spur mergers and acquisitions in the sector. Perhaps today’s zombies can have their assets “brought to life” on the balance sheets of healthier companies.
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More Than Precious: Silver’s Role in the New Energy Era (Part 3 of 3)
Long known as a precious metal, silver in solar and EV technologies will redefine its role and importance to a greener economy.
Silver’s Role in the New Energy Era (Part 3 of 3)
Silver is one of the first metals that humans discovered and used. Its extensive use throughout history has linked its name to its monetary value. However, as we have advanced technologically, so have our uses for silver. In the future, silver will see a surge in demand from solar and electric vehicle (EV) technologies.
Part 3 of the Silver Series comes to us from Endeavour Silver, and it outlines silver’s role in the new energy era and how it is more than just a precious metal.
A Sterling Reputation: Silver’s History in Technologies
Silver along with gold, copper, lead and iron, was one of the first metals known to humankind. Archaeologists have uncovered silver coins and objects dating from before 4,000 BC in Greece and Turkey. Since then, governments and jewelers embraced its properties to mint currency and craft jewelry.
This historical association between silver and money is recorded across multiple languages. The word silver itself comes from the Anglo-Saxon language, seolfor, which itself comes from ancient Germanic silabar.
Silver’s chemical symbol, “Ag”, is an abbreviation of the Latin word for silver, argentum. The Latin word originates from argunas, a Sanskrit word which means shining. The French use argent as the word for money and silver. Romans bankers and silver traders carried the name argentarius.
While silver’s monetary meanings still stand today, there have been hints of its use beyond money throughout history. For centuries, many cultures used silver containers and wares to store wine, water, and food to prevent spoilage.
During bouts of bubonic plague in Europe, children of wealthy families sucked on silver spoons to preserve their health, which gave birth to the phrase “born with a silver spoon in your mouth.”
Medieval doctors invented silver nitrate used to treat ulcers and burns, a practice that continues to this day. In the 1900s, silver found further application in healthcare. Doctors used to administer eye drops containing silver to newborns in the United States. During World War I, combat medics, doctors, and nurses would apply silver sutures to cover deep wounds.
Silver’s shimmer also made an important material in photography up until the 1970s. Silver’s reflectivity of light made it popular in mirror and building windows.
Now, a new era is rediscovering silver’s properties for the next generation of technology, making the metal more than precious.
Silver in the New Energy Era: Solar and EVs
Silver’s shimmering qualities foreshadowed its use in renewable technologies. Among all metals, silver has the highest electrical conductivity, making it an ideal metal for use in solar cells and the electronic components of electric vehicles.
Silver in Solar Photovoltaics
Conductive layers of silver paste within the cells of a solar photovoltaic (PV) cell help to conduct the electricity within the cell. When light strikes a PV, the conductors absorb the energy and electrons are set free.
Silver’s conductivity carries and stores the free electrons efficiently, maximizing the energy output of a solar cell. According to one study from the University of Kent, a typical solar panel can contain as much as 20 grams of silver.
As the world adopts solar photovoltaics, silver could see dramatic demand coming from this form of renewable energy.
Silver in Electric Vehicles
Silver’s conductivity and corrosion resistance makes its use in electronics critical, and electric vehicles are no exception. Virtually every electrical connection in a vehicle uses silver.
Silver is a critical material in the automotive sector, which uses over 55 million ounces of the metal annually. Auto manufacturers apply silver to the electrical contacts in powered seats and windows and other automotive electronics to improve conductivity.
A Silver Intensive Future
A green future will require metals and will redefine the role for many of them. Silver is no exception. Long known as a precious metal, silver also has industrial applications metal for an eco-friendly future.
Visualizing China’s Dominance in Rare Earth Metals
Rare earth deposits exist all over the planet, but the majority of the world’s rare earth metals are produced and refined in China.
China’s Dominance in Rare Earth Metals
Did you know that a single iPhone contains eight different rare earth metals?
From smartphones and electric vehicles to x-rays and guided-missiles, several modern technologies wouldn’t be what they are without rare earth metals. Also known as rare earth elements or simply “rare earths”, this group of 17 elements is critical to a number of wide-ranging industries.
Although deposits of rare earth metals exist all over the world, the majority of both mining and refining occurs in China. The above graphic from CSIS China Power Project tracks China’s exports of rare earth metals in 2019, providing a glimpse of the country’s dominating presence in the global supply chain.
China’s Top Rare Earth Export Destinations
Around 88% of China’s 2019 rare earth exports went to just five countries, which are among the world’s technological and economic powerhouses.
|Export Destination||Share of China's Rare Earth Exports||Top Rare Earth Import (tons)|
|Rest of the World||12.1%||Cerium|
Japan and the U.S. are by far the largest importers, collectively accounting for more than two-thirds of China’s rare earth metals exports.
Lanthanum, found in hybrid vehicles and smartphones, was China’s largest rare earth export by volume, followed by cerium. In dollar terms, terbium was the most expensive—generating $57.9 million from just 115 metric tons of exports.
Why China’s Dominance Matters
As the world transitions to a cleaner future, the demand for rare earth metals is expected to nearly double by 2030, and countries are in need of a reliable supply chain.
China’s virtual monopoly in rare earth metals not only gives it a strategic upper hand over heavily dependent countries like the U.S.—which imports 80% of its rare earths from China—but also makes the supply chain anything but reliable.
“China will not rule out using rare earth exports as leverage to deal with the [Trade War] situation.”
—Gao Fengping et al., 2019, in a report funded by the Chinese government via Horizon Advisory.
A case in point comes from 2010 when China reduced its rare earth export quotas by 37%, which in part resulted in skyrocketing rare earth prices worldwide.
The resulting supply chain disruption was significant enough to push the EU, the U.S., and Japan to jointly launch a dispute settlement case through the World Trade Organization, which was ruled against China in 2014.
On the brighter side, the increase in prices led to an influx of capital in the rare earth mining industry, financing more than 200 projects outside China. While this exploration boom was short-lived, it was successful in kick-starting production in other parts of the world.
Breaking China’s Rare Earth Monopoly
China’s dominance in rare earths is the result of years of evolving industrial policies since the 1980s, ranging from tax rebates to export restrictions. In order to reduce dependence on China, the U.S. and Japan have made it a priority to diversify their sources of rare earth metals.
For starters, the U.S. has added rare earth metals to its list of critical minerals, and President Donald Trump recently issued an executive order to encourage local production. On the other side of the world, Japan is making efforts to reduce China’s share of its total rare earth imports to less than 50% by 2025.
Increasing rare earth mining outside of China has reduced China’s global share of mining, down from 97.7% in 2010 to 62.9% in 2019. But mining is merely one piece of the puzzle.
Ultimately, the large majority of rare earth refining, 80%, resides in China. Therefore, even rare earths mined overseas are sent to China for final processing. New North American refining facilities are being set up to tackle this, but the challenge lies in managing the environmental impacts of processing rare earths.
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