Mapped: America’s $2 Trillion Economic Drop, By State and Industry
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Mapped: America’s $2 Trillion Economic Drop, by State and Sector

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Change in GDP $2T Economic Drop

Mapped: America’s $2 Trillion Economic Drop

It only took a handful of months for the U.S. economy to reel from COVID-19’s effects.

As unemployment rates hit all-time highs and businesses scrambled to stay afloat, new data shows that current dollar GDP plummeted from nearly $21.6 trillion down to $19.5 trillion between Q1’2020 and Q2’2020 (seasonally adjusted at annual rates).

While all states experienced a decline, the effects were not distributed equally across the nation. This visualization takes a look at the latest data from the Bureau of Economic Analysis, uncovering the biggest declines across states, and which industries were most affected by COVID-19 related closures and uncertainty.

Change in GDP by State and Industry

Between March-June 2020, stay-at-home orders resulted in disruptions to consumer activity, health, and the broader economy, causing U.S. GDP to fall by 31.4% from numbers posted in Q1.

The U.S. economy is the sum of its parts, with each state contributing to the total output—making the COVID-19 decline even more evident when state-by-state change in GDP is taken into consideration.

StateReal GDP ChangeBiggest Industry DeclineIndustry Change
(p.p.)
Alabama-29.6Durable Goods Manufacturing-5.02
Alaska-33.8Transport and Warehousing-9.43
Arizona-25.3Accommodation and Food Services-4.2
Arkansas-27.9Health Care and Social Assistance-4.57
California-31.5Accommodation and Food Services-4.43
Colorado-28.1Accommodation and Food Services-3.85
Connecticut-31.1Health Care and Social Assistance-4.61
Delaware-21.9Health Care and Social Assistance-4.19
Florida-30.1Accommodation and Food Services-5.3
Georgia-27.7Accommodation and Food Services-3.43
Hawaii-42.2Accommodation and Food Services-18.85
Idaho-32.4Health Care and Social Assistance-4.49
Illinois-29.7Accommodation and Food Services-4.11
Indiana-33.0Durable Goods Manufacturing-6.74
Iowa-28.2Durable Goods Manufacturing-4.35
Kansas-30.3Durable Goods Manufacturing-4.42
Kentucky-34.5Durable Goods Manufacturing-5.41
Louisiana-31.4Accommodation and Food Services-4.72
Maine-34.4Accommodation and Food Services-7.09
Maryland-27.7Health Care and Social Assistance-4.18
Massachusetts-31.6Health Care and Social Assistance-4.73
Michigan-37.6Durable Goods Manufacturing-7.57
Minnesota-31.3Health Care and Social Assistance-4.55
Mississippi-32.9Health Care and Social Assistance-4.56
Missouri-32.1Health Care and Social Assistance-4.29
Montana-30.8Health Care and Social Assistance-5.67
Nebraska-31.0Transport and Warehousing-6.13
Nevada-42.2Accommodation and Food Services-15.62
New Hampshire-36.9Accommodation and Food Services-6.7
New Jersey-35.6Health Care and Social Assistance-5.33
New Mexico-28.3Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction-4.4
New York-36.3Accommodation and Food Services-5.97
North Carolina-30.5Accommodation and Food Services-4.67
North Dakota-27.6Transport and Warehousing-4.94
Ohio-33.0Durable Goods Manufacturing-4.92
Oklahoma-31.1Transport and Warehousing-6.22
Oregon-31.9Accommodation and Food Services-5.81
Pennsylvania-34.0Health Care and Social Assistance-5.07
Rhode Island-32.4Health Care and Social Assistance-5.73
South Carolina-32.6Accommodation and Food Services-6.16
South Dakota-28.8Health Care and Social Assistance-5.44
Tennessee-40.4Health Care and Social Assistance-6.25
Texas-29.0Health Care and Social Assistance-3.13
Utah-22.4Transport and Warehousing-3.12
Vermont-38.2Accommodation and Food Services-8.52
Virginia-27.0Health Care and Social Assistance-3.59
Washington-25.5Accommodation and Food Services-4.39
West Virginia-29.6Health Care and Social Assistance-5.48
Wisconsin-32.6Durable Goods Manufacturing-5.17
Wyoming-32.5Transport and Warehousing-7.38
🇺🇸 U.S.-31.4Accommodation and Food Services-4.38

Note: Industry changes are reported in percentage points (p.p.) of total current dollar GDP between Q1 and Q2.

A total of 18 states took the biggest hit within the Accommodation & Food Services sector, which was also the industry that suffered the most nationally, dropping by 4.38%.

Highly dependent on tourism, Hawaii bore the brunt of decline in this industry with a 18.85% drop. According to The Economic Research Organization at the University of Hawaii (UHERO), a second wave of infections and expired financial assistance were behind this contraction.

Next, the Health Care & Social Assistance sector was most impacted in 17 states between the two quarters, falling the most in Tennessee (-6.25%).

The most resilient industry amid the pandemic was Financial Services. In the state of Delaware, home to major banks such as JPMorgan Chase and Capital One, the sector actually grew by 4.47%. However, Delaware’s GDP ultimately still fell due to contractions in other sectors.

Each Industry’s Worst Performing State

Looking at it another way, the worst-performing state by industry also becomes clear when the change in percentage points (p.p.) Q1’–Q2’2020 GDP contributions are measured. Of the 21 industries profiled, Nevada shows up in the lower end of the spectrum four times.

IndustryWorst-performing stateChange (p.p.)
Agriculture, forestry, fishing and huntingNebraska-4.99%
Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extractionWyoming-5.76%
UtilitiesNebraska-0.33%
ConstructionNew York-2.02%
Durable goods manufacturingMichigan-7.57%
Nondurable goods manufacturingIndiana-2.65%
Wholesale tradeNew Jersey-3.35%
Retail tradeNevada-2.88%
Transportation and warehousingAlaska-9.43%
InformationCalifornia-0.88%
Finance and insuranceSouth Dakota-1.53%
Real estate and rental and leasingFlorida-2.00%
Professional, scientific, and technical servicesDistrict of Columbia-4.46%
Management of companies and enterprisesNevada-0.38%
Administrative/ support /waste management / remediationNevada-2.48%
Educational servicesRhode Island-1.47%
Health care and social assistanceTennessee-6.25%
Arts, entertainment, and recreationNevada-4.44%
Accommodation and food servicesHawaii-18.85%
Other services (ex. govt)District of Columbia-2.40%
Government and government enterprisesAlaska-4.19%

With many U.S. business leaders expecting a second contraction to occur in the economy, will future figures reflect further declines, or will states manage to bounce back?

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Markets

Mapped: Distribution of Global GDP by Region

Where does the world’s economic activity take place? This cartogram shows the $94 trillion global economy divided into 1,000 hexagons.

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Map of Global Wealth Distribution

Mapped: The Distribution of Global GDP by Region

Gross domestic product (GDP) measures the value of goods and services that an economy produces in a given year, but in a global context, it is typically shown using country-level data.

As a result, we don’t often get to see the nuances of the global economy, such as how much specific regions and metro areas contribute to global GDP.

In these cartograms, global GDP has been normalized to a base number of 1,000 in order to show a more regional breakdown of economic activity. Created by Reddit user /BerryBlue_Blueberry, the two maps show the distribution in different ways: by nominal GDP and by GDP adjusted for purchasing power parity (PPP).

Methodology

Before diving in, let us give you some context on how these maps were designed. Each hexagon on the two maps represents 0.1% of the world’s overall GDP.

The number below each region, country or metropolitan area represents the number of hexagons covered by that entity. So in the nominal GDP map, the state of New York represents 20 hexagons (i.e. 2.0% of global GDP), while Munich’s metro area is 3 hexagons (0.3%).

Countries are further broken down based on size. Countries that make up more than 0.95% of global GDP are broken down into subdivisions, while countries that are smaller than 0.1% of GDP are grouped together. Metro areas that account for over 0.25% of global GDP are featured.

Finally, it should be noted that to account for some outdated subdivision participation data, the map creator calculated 2021 estimates for this using the formula: national GDP (2021) x % of subdivision participation (2017-2020).

Nominal vs. PPP

The above map is using nominal data, while the below map accounts for differences in purchasing power (PPP).

Adjusting for PPP takes into account the relative value of currencies and purchasing power in countries around the world. For example, $100 (or its exchange equivalent in Indian rupees) is generally going to be able to buy more in India than it is in the United States.

This is because goods and services are cheaper in India, meaning you can actually purchase more there for the same amount of money.

Anomalies in Global GDP Distribution

Breaking down global GDP distribution into cartograms highlights some interesting anomalies worth considering:

  1. North America, Europe, and East Asia, with a combined GDP of nearly $75 trillion, make up 80% of the world’s GDP in nominal terms.
  2. The U.S. State of California accounts for 3.7% of the world’s GDP by itself, which ranks higher than the United Kingdom’s total contribution of 3.3%.
  3. Canada as a country accounts for 2% of the world’s GDP, which is comparable to the GDP contribution of the Greater Tokyo Area at 2.2%.
  4. With a GDP of $3 trillion, India’s contribution overshadows the GDP of the whole African continent ($2.6 trillion).
  5. This visualization highlights the economic might of cities better than a conventional map. One standout example of this is in Ontario, Canada. The Greater Toronto Area completely eclipses the economy of the rest of the province.

Inequality of GDP Distribution

The fact that certain countries generate most of the world’s economic output is reflected in the above cartograms, which resize countries or regions accordingly.

Compared to wealthier nations, emerging economies still account for just a tiny sliver of the pie.

India, for example, accounts for 3.2% of global GDP in nominal terms, even though it contains 17.8% of the world’s population.

That’s why on the nominal map, India is about the same size as France, the United Kingdom, or Japan’s two largest metro areas (Tokyo and Osaka-Kobe)—but of course, these wealthier places have a far higher GDP per capita.

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The Top 10 Biggest Companies in Brazil

What drives some of the world’s emerging economies? From natural resources to giant banks, here are the top 10 biggest companies in Brazil.

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The Top 10 Biggest Companies in Brazil Oct 10 Share

The Top 10 Biggest Companies in Brazil

In 2009, the at-the-time emerging economies of Brazil, Russia, India, and China held their first formal summits as members of BRIC (with South Africa joining in 2010).

Together, BRICS represents 26.7% of the world’s land surface and 41.5% of its population. By GDP ranking, they’re also some of the most powerful economies in the world.

But what drives their economies? We’re highlighting the top 10 biggest companies in each country, starting with Brazil.

What Are the Biggest Public Companies in Brazil?

Brazil isn’t just one of the largest and most diverse countries in the world, it is also an economic powerhouse.

With over 213 million people, Brazil is the sixth most populous country on Earth and the largest in Latin America. It’s also the wealthiest on the continent, with the world’s 12th-largest economy.

Once a colony focused on sugar and gold, Brazil rapidly industrialized in the 20th century. Today, it is a top 10 exporter of industrial steel, with the country’s economic strength coming chiefly from natural resources and financials.

Here are Brazil’s biggest public companies by market capitalization in October 2021:

Top 10 Companies (October 2021)CategoryMarket Cap (USD)
ValeMetals and Mining$73.03B
Petróleo BrasileiroOil and Gas$69.84B
AmbevDrinks$43.87B
Itaú UnibancoFinancial$41.65B
Banco BradescoFinancial$34.16B
WEGIndustrial Engineering$29.43B
BTG PactualFinancial$25.01B
Banco Santander BrasilFinancial$24.70B
Rede D’Or Sao LuizHospital$23.79B
XP Inc.Financial$22.45B

At the top of the ranking is Vale, a metals and mining giant that is the world’s largest producer of iron ore and nickel. Also the operator of infrastructure including hydroelectricity plants, railroads, and ports, It consistently ranks as the most valuable company in Latin America.

Vale and second-ranking company Petróleo Brasileiro, Brazil’s largest oil producer, were former state-owned corporations that became privatized in the 1990s.

Finance in Brazil’s Top 10 Biggest Companies

Other than former monopolies, the top 10 biggest companies in Brazil highlight the power of the banking sector.

Five of the 10 companies with a market cap above $20 billion are in the financial industry.

They include Itaú Unibanco, the largest bank in the Southern Hemisphere, and Banco Santander Brasil, the Brazilian subsidiary of Spanish finance corp.

Another well-known subsidiary is brewing company Ambev, which produces the majority of the country’s liquors and also bottles and distributes PepsiCo products in much of Latin America. Ambev is an important piece of Belgian drink juggernaut Anheuser-Busch InBev, which is one of the world’s largest 100 companies.

Noticeably missing from the top 10 list are companies in the agriculture sector, as Brazil is the world’s largest exporter of coffee, soybeans, beef, and ethanol. Many multinational corporations have Brazilian subsidiaries or partners for supply chain access, which has recently put a spotlight on Amazon deforestation.

What other companies or industries do you associate with Brazil?

Correction: Two companies listed had errors in their market cap calculations and have been updated. All data is as of October 11, 2021.

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