How Junior Mining Companies Hit the Reset Button
How Junior Mining Companies Hit the Reset Button
Special thanks to Dajin Resources for sponsoring.
There is a saying in junior mining that “a rising tide floats all boats”. Basically what this implies is that when the market is doing well, all speculative companies benefit from a booming market at the same time. In other words, an investor can hold a position in any of these companies and receive a payoff.
However, what they don’t tell you is that a falling tide can make it a pretty rocky environment for even many of the best boats and navigators. In this type of environment, many companies can face dire circumstances in which they may need to get creative to survive. This is analogous to our current situation where junior mining stocks have been in a bear market for over four years.
If push comes to shove and a company’s situation becomes troubling enough, one answer is to hit the “reset” button. Management teams that cannot raise money may use this type of solution to rejig their share structure, pay off debt obligations, and eventually reposition their company to raise money again.
How does this work? First, the troubled company would roll back the stock such that multiple shares would be exchanged for one new share (for example, a 6:1 rollback would mean 6 old shares are turned into 1 new share). Note that such a rollback also changes the stock price by the same ratio, so a $0.01 stock would then be trading at $0.06.
Then, the company would issue new stock to settle any debt that is on the books and then raise money again. Ultimately, in order to be successful at any of this, the company needs to also shift their direction in some meaningful way. Changing the management team, switching focuses, or acquiring a new project may be ways to give a company new life.
While it is never fun to admit defeat for management teams or investors, ultimately this “reset” button is something that is a unique part of this sector and for good reason. It gives a clean slate, and creates a share structure and situation which can possibly be turned around.
Charted: 30 Years of Central Bank Gold Demand
Globally, central banks bought a record 1,136 tonnes of gold in 2022. How has central bank gold demand changed over the last three decades?
30 Years of Central Bank Gold Demand
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Did you know that nearly one-fifth of all the gold ever mined is held by central banks?
Besides investors and jewelry consumers, central banks are a major source of gold demand. In fact, in 2022, central banks snapped up gold at the fastest pace since 1967.
However, the record gold purchases of 2022 are in stark contrast to the 1990s and early 2000s, when central banks were net sellers of gold.
The above infographic uses data from the World Gold Council to show 30 years of central bank gold demand, highlighting how official attitudes toward gold have changed in the last 30 years.
Why Do Central Banks Buy Gold?
Gold plays an important role in the financial reserves of numerous nations. Here are three of the reasons why central banks hold gold:
- Balancing foreign exchange reserves
Central banks have long held gold as part of their reserves to manage risk from currency holdings and to promote stability during economic turmoil.
- Hedging against fiat currencies
Gold offers a hedge against the eroding purchasing power of currencies (mainly the U.S. dollar) due to inflation.
- Diversifying portfolios
Gold has an inverse correlation with the U.S. dollar. When the dollar falls in value, gold prices tend to rise, protecting central banks from volatility.
The Switch from Selling to Buying
In the 1990s and early 2000s, central banks were net sellers of gold.
There were several reasons behind the selling, including good macroeconomic conditions and a downward trend in gold prices. Due to strong economic growth, gold’s safe-haven properties were less valuable, and low returns made it unattractive as an investment.
Central bank attitudes toward gold started changing following the 1997 Asian financial crisis and then later, the 2007–08 financial crisis. Since 2010, central banks have been net buyers of gold on an annual basis.
Here’s a look at the 10 largest official buyers of gold from the end of 1999 to end of 2021:
|Rank||Country||Amount of |
Gold Bought (tonnes)
|#7||🇸🇦 Saudi Arabia||180||3%|
The top 10 official buyers of gold between end-1999 and end-2021 represent 84% of all the gold bought by central banks during this period.
Russia and China—arguably the United States’ top geopolitical rivals—have been the largest gold buyers over the last two decades. Russia, in particular, accelerated its gold purchases after being hit by Western sanctions following its annexation of Crimea in 2014.
Interestingly, the majority of nations on the above list are emerging economies. These countries have likely been stockpiling gold to hedge against financial and geopolitical risks affecting currencies, primarily the U.S. dollar.
Meanwhile, European nations including Switzerland, France, Netherlands, and the UK were the largest sellers of gold between 1999 and 2021, under the Central Bank Gold Agreement (CBGA) framework.
Which Central Banks Bought Gold in 2022?
In 2022, central banks bought a record 1,136 tonnes of gold, worth around $70 billion.
|Country||2022 Gold Purchases (tonnes)||% of Total|
Türkiye, experiencing 86% year-over-year inflation as of October 2022, was the largest buyer, adding 148 tonnes to its reserves. China continued its gold-buying spree with 62 tonnes added in the months of November and December, amid rising geopolitical tensions with the United States.
Overall, emerging markets continued the trend that started in the 2000s, accounting for the bulk of gold purchases. Meanwhile, a significant two-thirds, or 741 tonnes of official gold purchases were unreported in 2022.
According to analysts, unreported gold purchases are likely to have come from countries like China and Russia, who are looking to de-dollarize global trade to circumvent Western sanctions.
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