What does a modern stock market analyst and a 17th century Japanese rice trader have in common?
A little more than you may think.
In fact, both have been known to be fond of a very particular charting technique to describe trading sessions. Today, we call this style of stock chart a candlestick chart, and it is regularly used by investors and technical traders to gauge the momentum of securities.
Today’s infographic comes to us from Hantec Markets, and it provides an introduction to how candlestick charts work. Further, it explains some common patterns, and how they are generally interpreted by investors.
Candlestick charts are often used by traders to help interpret the day-to-day sentiment behind a security.
If the sentiment changes, a trend reversal may be in store – and an opportunity to take advantage could be in sight.
Candlestick charts show the price action of a security over time, and each individual candlestick indicates four pieces of data for a particular session: the high, open, close, and low price for a security.
Meanwhile, the color of the candlestick indicates the direction of the session: white means the close was higher than the open (bullish), while black means the close was lower than the open (bearish).
Note: it’s common to see candlesticks charted using green and red colors, as well.
Patterns Worth Knowing
While recognizable trading patterns with candlestick charts can get complex, there are some important nuts and bolts to consider beforehand:
Spinning Top: These have long shadows and short bodies, taking the shape of a spinning top toy. They can be interpreted as indecisive periods of trading – and if following a long uptrend or downtrend, could be seen as showing the bulls (or bears) losing control.
Marubozu: A marubozu is only represented by a body, meaning the high and low are the same as the open and close. In other words, these are very bullish or bearish, depending on their color.
Doji: A doji is when the opening and closing price are the same, resulting in a small body.
These are just the most basic formations, and it’s possible to dive into candlestick charts much deeper.
Here’s a simple primer that reviews the above, but takes things a step further.
Why Investors Should Rethink Traditional Income Strategies
Traditional longer-terms bonds are no longer as effective—so which additional income strategies should investors be considering?
Why Investors Should Rethink Traditional Income Strategies
Humans are creatures of habit. We all have daily routines, whether it’s walking the same lunchtime route, watching a familiar TV show, or cooking the same meal over and over again. Once we develop a pattern, it can take a drastic change to convince us to rethink our approach.
One such shake-up to ingrained investment habits is the changing landscape of income investing.
In today’s infographic from New York Life Investments, we explain why traditional long-term bonds may not be as effective as they were in the past, and which additional income strategies investors can consider.
The Status Quo
For years, investors have relied on traditional longer-term bonds as the centerpiece in an income portfolio. These debt instruments usually pay out interest to investors on a predetermined schedule, providing a steady income stream investment. Historically, they have also been subject to less volatility than equities.
The typical bond portfolio is diversified, much like the Bloomberg Barclay’s U.S. Aggregate Index. Here’s how the sectors are broken down in the index:
Unfortunately, this income strategy has been less effective in recent years. Over the last decade, core bond duration has increased by 1.5 years while yields have decreased by almost 2%. Essentially, interest rate volatility has increased—but investors are less compensated for the risk.
In light of low rates and higher expected market volatility, it’s critical that investors explore other income solutions. Luckily, there are many lesser-known asset classes for investors to consider.
Additional Income Strategies: An Investor’s Choice
When investors decide how to re-allocate, they can keep these objectives in mind:
- Preservation of principal (risk level)
- Pursuit of capital (growth potential)
- Perseverance in markets (long-term objectives)
Which additional income strategies can they explore?
Taxable Municipal Bonds
Issued by state and local governments, the yield of taxable munis has historically been higher than that of other sectors. Taxable munis also have a strong credit rating—over 76% of U.S. municipal bonds outstanding are A+ rated or better.
Insured Municipal Bonds
Investors can get additional downside protection with insured municipal bonds, which are guaranteed to pay interest and principal back by private insurers. They have historically performed similar to munis while capturing less of the “downside”, often providing an attractive risk-adjusted return for income investors.
Short-duration, High-yield Bonds
Bonds with a shorter duration and higher yield can be a lower volatility approach to achieving the same income investing goals.
Yield and Risk in Bonds (July 1, 2014 – June 30, 2019):
|Bond Type||Yield||Standard Deviation (annualized)||Yield per Unit of Risk|
|U.S. Aggregate Bonds||2.49||2.94||0.85|
|High Yield Bonds||6.05||5.60||1.08|
|Low-duration, High-yield bonds||5.00||3.90||1.28|
Short duration funds have lower interest rate risk, and can offer attractive yield per unit of risk.
Equities can also play a role in an income focused portfolio. Investors should look for established companies that are achieving:
- Growth in free cash flow
- Stable or growing dividends
- Share buybacks or debt reduction
Over the last 40+ years, the annual compound return of stocks with growing dividends have outperformed dividend cutters on the S&P 500 by more than 4%.
Preparing for Your Future
Maximizing the benefit from new income opportunities can take time. For this reason, it’s important to consider potential portfolio changes now, so that these strategies can play out in the lead up to retirement years.
It may be tempting to stick with the status quo—both in daily routines and investment strategies—but those who proactively adjust their approach will be able to maximize their potential.
How Equities Can Reduce Longevity Risk
With life expectancies increasing, will you outlive your savings? Learn how allocating more of your portfolio to equities may reduce longevity risk.
Will You Outlive Your Savings?
The desire to live longer — and outrun death — is ingrained in the human spirit. The first emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang, may have even drank mercury in his quest for immortality.
Over time, advice for living longer has become more practical: eat well, get regular exercise, seek medical advice. However, as life expectancies increase, many individuals will struggle to save enough for their lengthy retirement years.
Today’s infographic comes from New York Life Investments, and it uncovers how holding a stronger equity weighting in your portfolio may help you save enough funds for your lifespan.
Longer Life Expectancies
Around the world, more people are living longer.
|Year||Life Expectancy at Birth, World|
Despite this, many people underestimate how long they’ll live. Why?
- They compare to older relatives.
Approximately 25% of variation in lifespan is a product of ancestry, but it’s not the only factor that matters. Gender, lifestyle, exercise, diet, and even socioeconomic status also have a large impact. Even more importantly, breakthroughs in healthcare and technology have contributed to longer life expectancies over the last century.
- They refer to life expectancy at birth.
This is the most commonly quoted statistic. However, life expectancies rise as individuals age. This is because they have survived many potential causes of untimely death — including higher mortality risks often associated with childhood.
Amid the longer lifespans and inaccurate predictions, a problem is brewing.
Currently, 35% of U.S. households do not participate in any retirement savings plan. Among those who do, the median household only has $1,100 in its retirement account.
Enter longevity risk: many investors are facing the possibility that they will outlive their retirement savings.
So, what’s the solution? One strategy lies in the composition of an investor’s portfolio.
The Case for a Stronger Equity Weighting
One of the most important decisions an investor will make is their asset allocation.
As a guide, many individuals have referred to the “100-age” rule. For example, a 40-year-old would hold 60% in stocks while an 80-year-old would hold 20% in stocks.
As life expectancies rise and time horizons lengthen, a more aggressive portfolio has become increasingly important. Today, professionals suggest a rule closer to 110-age or 120-age.
There are many reasons why investors should consider holding a strong equity weighting.
- Equities Have Strong Long-Term Performance
Equities deliver much higher returns than other asset classes over time. Not only do they outpace inflation by a wide margin, many also pay dividends that boost performance when reinvested.
- Small Yearly Withdrawals Limit Risk
Upon retirement, an investor usually withdraws only a small percentage of their portfolio each year. This limits the downside risk of equities, even in bear markets.
- Earning Potential Can Balance Portfolio Risk
Some healthy seniors are choosing to work in retirement to stay active. This means they have more earning potential, and are better equipped to recoup any losses their portfolio may experience.
- Time Horizons Extend Beyond Lifespan
Many individuals, particularly affluent investors, want to pass on their wealth to their loved ones upon their death. Given the longer time horizon, the portfolio is better equipped to ride out risk and maximize returns through equities.
Higher Risk, Higher Potential Reward
Holding equities can be an exercise in psychological discipline. An investor must be able to ride out the ups and downs in the stock market.
If they can, there’s a good chance they will be rewarded. By allocating more of their portfolio to equities, investors greatly increase the odds of retiring whenever they want — with funds that will last their entire lifetime.
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