Influencer marketing is having its moment.
Whether it’s a tagged pair of shoes in an Instagram post, or an “unboxing” video on Snapchat, brands are fighting hard to get their products into the hands of social media celebs who can move the needle on their sales numbers.
The Rise of Influencer Marketing
According to Influencer Marketing Hub, over one-third of marketers have a standalone budget for influencers in 2017.
It’s easy to see the appeal as influencer marketing can deliver 11 times higher ROI than traditional brand marketing. As influencer–brand partnerships begin to reach mass adoption, what metrics should markets be looking at? Today’s infographic is good primer on the state of influencer marketing.
At first glance, influencer marketing sounds like a strange concept, but it’s a natural evolution of content marketing over social media platforms. To understand influencer marketing, it helps if we step back and look at the big picture of how content marketing actually works.
Content Marketing: Fighting for Feed Space
Most social media platforms have the same format – content posted by people is arranged into a customized “feed” for you to consume. Content marketing is simply the process of getting users to follow your brand on platforms so your content appears in their feeds.
In the earlier days of social media marketing, people were more actively seeking out accounts to follow, including brand accounts. Today though, many platforms have hit a growth plateau, so unless your brand already has a large, engaged audience, it can tough to gain any traction. To add a layer of difficulty, many platforms (particularly in the Facebook ecosystem) now restrict the reach of brand accounts in an effort to get them to spend money on advertising.
In short, reaching people (including your opt-in audience) is much harder than it used to be.
The Human Connection
The algorithms that rank posts in your feed are looking for something specific: engagement. And let’s face it, a brand posting about their product is not going to be as exciting as a well-connected personality showcasing their life. It’s the latter example that shows up first in social feeds, and that’s one major benefit to working with an influencer.
As well, peer opinion is a powerful force in purchase decisions. If a content creator is truly influential, they can provide a massive boost to a brand’s profile that would be very difficult to manufacture through other marketing methods.
We see these creators as partners of the brand helping us to build deeper connections with the young millennials who look up to them.
– Obioma Enyia, Head of Brand Marketing at PepsiCo
Smart marketers are always looking for ways to target the right demographics to maximize the efficiency of their spend. Because influencers already have a measurable and observable audience, you can hone in on a specific type of consumer. If you find similar influencers in other regions, you can scale out a campaign in a very effective way.
Bigger brand are often looking for macro impact, and shell out big bucks to work with top tier celebrity influencers, but brands can take a more grassroots approach and partner with content creators at the city or even neighborhood level (often for a fraction of the spend). This is referred to as “micro-influence”, and is a fast-growing segment of influencer marketing.
How Does Compensation Work?
Compensation can take a few forms, but many influencers work on a pay-per-post basis. Experienced influencers will often be happy to receive compensation through referrals, particularly on platforms that have e-commerce integration.
How Do You Measure This Stuff?
Measuring the effectiveness of a campaign always comes down to sales in the end, but an influencer’s contribution to that can take different forms. Some brands are simply looking to align their brand with a “cool personality” who fits with their target audience. Other times, it will make sense to work with people who can drive traffic – and ultimately conversions – to their shopping cart.
Many agencies are skeptical of the influencer marketing trend.
Since there is no industry standard for reporting results, and because certain platforms (e.g. Snapchat) offer scant analytics, it can be tough to calculate ROI or trust the numbers in post-campaign reports.
I have very strong opinions about micro-influencers. It’s basically the biggest scam…
– Anonymous marketing executive (The full interview)
Along with dubious analytics, marketers should watch for fake followers and engagement. Keeping track of average engagement rates and doing a proper qualitative analysis on an influencer’s account should be the first step before working together.
The Evolution of Sponsored Posts
There will be an estimated 14.5 million* sponsored posts in 2017, and by 2019 that number could mushroom to 35 million. This spike in popularity is prompting concerns that we’re reaching a saturation point for influencer marketing, and that consumers will begin to tune out sponsored posts.
One thing is for certain, social media personalities are amassing sizable audiences for their content and are commanding serious marketing dollars in the process. It remains to be seen whether sponsored posts become a ubiquitous part of the social media landscape, or whether it will become a hackneyed tactic.
*This estimate only accounts for tagged, public posts
Explainer: The Basics of DNA and Genetic Systems
All living things have a genetic system made up of DNA. This graphic explores the basics of DNA composition and structure.
Explainer: The Basics of DNA and Genetic Systems
While there is great diversity among living things, we all have one thing in common—we all rely on a genetic system made up of DNA and/or RNA.
But how do genetic systems work, and to what extent do they vary across species?
This graphic by Anne-Lise Paris explores the basics of DNA and genetic systems, including how they’re structured, and how they differ across species.
Composition of Genetic Systems: DNA and RNA
A genetic system is essentially a set of instructions that dictate our genetic makeup—what we look like and how we interact with our environment.
This set of instructions is stored in nucleic acids, the two main types being deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA).
DNA is made up of four molecules, known as nucleotides: Adenine (A), Thymine (T), Cytosine ( C), and Guanine (G). These nucleotides are grouped in sets of two, which are called base pairs.
Size of Genomes Across Different Organisms
Human DNA is made up of approximately 3.2 billion base pairs that are tightly wound up and stored in our cells. If you were to unwind and measure the DNA stored in a single human cell, it would be about 2 meters (6.5 feet) long!
This lengthy DNA is stored in pairs of chromosomes. A full collection of chromosomes, or an entire set of genetic information, is referred to as a genome.
Genomes vary in size, depending on the organism. Here is a look at 24 different species and the size of their genomes, from animals and plants to bacteria and viruses:
|Organism||Kingdom||Size of genomes (number of base pairs)|
|Hepatitis D virus||Virus||1,700|
The Marbled Lungfish has the largest known animal genome. Its genome is made up of 130 billion base pairs, which is about 126.8 billion more than the average human genome.
Comparatively, small viruses and bacteria have fewer base pairs. The Hepatitis D virus has only 1,700 base pairs, while E. coli bacteria has 4.6 million. Interestingly, research has not found a link between the size of a species’ genome and the organism’s size or complexity.
In fact, there are still a ton of unanswered questions in the field of genome research. Why do some species have small genomes? Why do some have a ton of redundant DNA? These are still questions being investigated by scientists today.
Mapped: Which Countries Still Have a Monarchy?
Beyond the 15 nations under the British monarchy, 28 other countries still have a ruling monarch. Here’s a look at the world’s monarchies.
Mapped: Which Countries Still Have a Monarchy?
In the wake of Queen Elizabeth II’s death, the question of monarchy is brought sharply into focus.
However, a surprising number of countries have ruling monarchs, and in this visual we break down the kinds of royal leadership across the 43 countries that still have them.
Types of Monarchies
A monarch in the simplest sense is a country’s king, queen, emir, or sultan, and so on. But before diving in, it’s important to break down the distinctions between the types of monarchies that exist today. Generally, there are four kinds:
① Constitutional Monarchy
The monarch divides power with a constitutionally founded government. In this situation, the monarch, while having ceremonial duties and certain responsibilities, does not have any political power. For example, the UK’s monarch must sign all laws to make them official, but has no power to change or reject new laws.
Here are some examples of countries with constitutional monarchies:
🇬🇧 United Kingdom
② Absolute Monarchy
The monarch has full and absolute political power. They can amend, reject, or create laws, represent the country’s interests abroad, appoint political leaders, and so on.
Here are some examples of countries with absolute monarchies:
🇸🇦 Saudi Arabia
🇻🇦 Vatican City
③ Federal Monarchy
The monarch serves an overall figurehead of the federation of states which have their own governments, or even monarchies, ruling them.
Here are some examples of countries with federal monarchies:
Malaysia is a unique form of federal monarchy. Every five years, each state’s royal leaders choose amongst themselves who will be the monarch, or the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, of Malaysia and the respective states. Furthermore, the monarchy is also constitutional, allowing a democratically elected body to govern.
④ Mixed Monarchy
This is a situation wherein an absolute monarch may divide powers in distinct ways specific to the country.
Here are some examples of countries with mixed monarchies:
Interestingly, Liechtenstein is the only European monarchy that still practises strict agnatic primogeniture. Under agnatic primogeniture, the degree of kinship is determined by tracing descent from the nearest common ancestor through male ancestors.
Kings, Queens, Emperors, and Sultans Around the Globe
Now let’s break down the different monarchies country by country:
|Country||Type of Monarchy||Title of Head of State||Monarch||Title of Head of Government|
|🇦🇩 Andorra||Constitutional||Co-Princes||Joan-Enric Vives, Emmanuel Macron||Prime Minister|
|🇦🇬 Antigua and Barbuda||Constitutional||King||Charles III||Prime Minister|
|🇦🇺 Australia||Constitutional||King||Charles III||Prime Minister|
|🇧🇭 Bahrain||Mixed||King||Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa||Prime Minister|
|🇧🇪 Belgium||Constitutional||King||Philippe||Prime Minister|
|🇧🇿 Belize||Constitutional||King||Charles III||Prime Minister|
|🇧🇹 Bhutan||Constitutional||King||Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck||Prime Minister|
|🇧🇳 Brunei Darussalam||Absolute||Sultan||Hassanal Bolkiah||Sultan|
|🇰🇭 Cambodia||Constitutional||King||Norodom Sihamoni||Prime Minister|
|🇨🇦 Canada||Constitutional||King||Charles III||Prime Minister|
|🇩🇰 Denmark||Constitutional||Queen||Margrethe II||Prime Minister|
|🇸🇿 Eswatini||Absolute||King||Mswati III||Prime Minister|
|🇬🇩 Grenada||Constitutional||King||Charles III||Prime Minister|
|🇯🇲 Jamaica||Constitutional||King||Charles III||Prime Minister|
|🇯🇵 Japan||Constitutional||Emperor||Naruhito||Prime Minister|
|🇯🇴 Jordan||Mixed||King||Abdullah II||Prime Minister|
|🇰🇼 Kuwait||Mixed||Emir||Nawaf Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah||Prime Minister|
|🇱🇸 Lesotho||Constitutional||King||Letsie III||Prime Minister|
|🇱🇮 Liechtenstein||Mixed||Sovereign Prince||Hans-Adam II||Prime Minister|
|🇱🇺 Luxembourg||Constitutional||Grand Duke||Henri||Prime Minister|
|🇲🇾 Malaysia||Constitutional & Federal||Yang di-Pertuan Agong||Abdullah||Prime Minister|
|🇲🇨 Monaco||Mixed||Sovereign Prince||Albert II||Minister of State|
|🇲🇦 Morocco||Mixed||King||Mohammed VI||Prime Minister|
|🇳🇱 Netherlands||Constitutional||King||Willem-Alexander||Prime Minister|
|🇳🇿 New Zealand||Constitutional||King||Charles III||Prime Minister|
|🇳🇴 Norway||Constitutional||King||Harald V||Prime Minister|
|🇴🇲 Oman||Absolute||Sultan||Haitham bin Tarik||Sultan|
|🇵🇬 Papua New Guinea||Constitutional||King||Charles III||Prime Minister|
|🇶🇦 Qatar||Mixed||Emir||Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani||Prime Minister|
|🇰🇳 Saint Kitts and Nevis||Constitutional||King||Charles III||Prime Minister|
|🇱🇨 Saint Lucia||Constitutional||King||Charles III||Prime Minister|
|🇻🇨 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines||Constitutional||King||Charles III||Prime Minister|
|🇸🇦 Saudi Arabia||Absolute||King||Salman||Prime Minister|
|🇸🇧 Solomon Islands||Constitutional||King||Charles III||Prime Minister|
|🇪🇸 Spain||Constitutional||King||Felipe VI||President of the Government|
|🇸🇪 Sweden||Constitutional||King||Carl XVI Gustaf||Prime Minister|
|🇹🇭 Thailand||Constitutional||King||Rama X||Prime Minister|
|🇧🇸 The Bahamas||Constitutional||King||Charles III||Prime Minister|
|🇹🇴 Tonga||Constitutional||King||Tupou VI||Prime Minister|
|🇹🇻 Tuvalu||Constitutional||King||Charles III||Prime Minister|
|🇦🇪 UAE||Federal||President||Mohamed bin Zayed Al Nahyan||Prime Minister|
|🇬🇧 UK||Constitutional||King||Charles III||Prime Minister|
|🇻🇦 Vatican City||Absolute||Pope||Francis||President of the Pontifical Commission|
Constitutional monarchies are undoubtedly the most popular form of royal leadership in the modern era, making up close to 70% of all monarchies. This situation allows for democratically elected governments to rule the country, while the monarch performs ceremonial duties.
Most monarchs are hereditary, inheriting their position by luck of their birth, but interestingly, French president, Emmanuel Macron, technically serves as a Co-Prince of Andorra.
Another unique case is the Vatican’s Pope Francis, who has absolute power in the small independent city—he gained his role thanks to an election process known as a papal conclave.
The Role of Monarchies
One of the most notable and famous ruling monarchies is the United Kingdom’s House of Windsor—also known as Queen Elizabeth II’s family. King Charles III has now ascended to the country’s throne, making him head of state in 15 nations total, including Canada, Australia, and New Zealand.
Many see the benefit in having a stable and consistent form of tradition and decorum at the country’s head of state.
“The Crown is an integral part of the institution of Parliament. The Queen [now King] plays a constitutional role in opening and dissolving Parliament and approving Bills before they become law.” – British Parliament
Japan’s royal family has been a prime example of stability, having reigned in the country for more than 2,600 years under the same hereditary line.
Critiques and the Future of Monarchy
Some claim, however, that there is no function of monarchy in the modern day, and complaints of monarchies’ immense wealth and power are rampant.
For example, according to the Dutch government, King Willem-Alexander’s budget for 2022, funded by the state and thus, taxpayers, comes out to more than €48 million.
Beyond tax dollars, with absolute monarchies there is typically a lack of political freedoms and certain rights. Saudi Arabia, for example, has no national elections. Rather its king, Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, stays in power for life, appoints the cabinet himself, and passes laws by royal decree.
The death of Queen Elizabeth, though, may bring about change though for many of the world’s royally-governed. Since Barbados’ removal of her as head of state in 2021, six other Caribbean nations have expressed the desire to do the same, namely:
🇧🇸 The Bahamas
🇦🇬 Antigua and Barbuda
🇰🇳 St. Kitts and Nevis
The future of monarchy in the 21st century is certainly not a guarantee.
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