How Our Cities Impact the Future Incomes of Children
Certain cities in America are better for upward mobility
The Chart of the Week is a weekly Visual Capitalist feature on Fridays.
In the long-standing psychology debate on nature versus nurture, the question is whether it is our genes or our experiences that hold the keys to our future.
The short answer to this question, according to many of today’s scientists and psychologists, is that nature and nurture are always working together. In other words, genes do what they do depending on their context, and nature and nurture work to influence each other constantly.
In other words, our family experiences, households, and neighborhoods can set the stage for how our genes react. And on a macro level, looking at cities can tell us a lot about how our environments can help to influence future outcomes.
A Tale of Two City Types
Today’s chart pulls out some of the most compelling data from a 2015 report on intergenerational mobility.
The report studies five million families that have moved between counties in the United States, ultimately showing that there is a “childhood exposure effect” in cities that helps to predict future income levels as adults. Put another way, some cities are better than others in helping kids move “up the ladder” by accessing opportunities that later affect income. On balance, other places provide a tougher environment that makes it harder.
In this case, it should be noted that our above chart specifically deals with the city “bonuses” or “penalties”, expressed as an annual dollar amount for every year exposed to a city’s environment, on the future earnings of children in low-income families (25th percentile).
Digging into City Data
On an individual level, a person can of course succeed or fail regardless of their family or neighborhood. This happens all the time, and there are countless examples of rags-to-riches stories.
The concern highlighted by this study is that, on the whole, there is a significant disparity between cities as far as predicting future income goes. Growing up for an entire childhood in New Orleans or Los Angeles, on average, means that future income will be lower than the national median. In Salt Lake City or Boston, it’s likely to be higher than the national median.
The “bonuses” and “penalties” add up. For example, spending an entire childhood in New Orleans is estimated to lower future income to -$3,150 below the national median.
Cities in the Northeast seem to have the most mixed bag of “place effects”. New York, Philadelphia, and Buffalo have negative effects, while Boston and Washington, D.C. are both positive.
Meanwhile, the Southeast, Midwest, and Southwest all see a similar negative effect through major cities. Minneapolis and Pittsburgh are exceptions to this rule.
Finally, cities in the West appear to mostly have positive effects, with the exception of Los Angeles and Fresno (not on map).
Uncovering Income: Dividend Stocks With Strong Yields
Some companies are cutting or suspending dividends. Which dividend stocks can investors consider for stable distributions and strong yields?
Uncovering Income: Dividend Stocks with Strong Yields
Amid the current market volatility, attractive income-generating investments can be hard to find.
Treasury bond yields hover near record lows, and U.S. companies face restrictions on issuing dividends if they accept COVID-19 stimulus funds. Moreover, Goldman Sachs estimates dividends for S&P 500 stocks will decline by 25% this year.
Which stocks can investors turn to for stable distributions and relatively high dividend yields? Today’s visualization shows 35 stocks that may meet this criteria, leveraging Goldman Sachs data as published by Forbes.
The Dividend Stocks to Watch
To compile the list, Goldman Sachs identified stocks from the Russell 1000 index that met a number of requirements:
- A minimum annualized dividend yield of 3%
- An S&P credit rating of at least BBB+
- Ample cash on hand
- Strong balance sheets
- ”Reasonable” payout ratios
- At least average performance since the market peak
Dividend yields, which measure dividend income in relation to the share price, were initially calculated March 27. We have updated them as of market close on April 8. Here’s the full breakdown, sorted from highest to lowest dividend yield:
|Rank||Company||Ticker||Annual Dividend Yield||Sector|
|1||CenterPoint Energy, Inc.||NYSE: CNP||6.90%||Utilities|
|2||Wells Fargo & Company||NYSE: WFC||6.74%||Financials|
|3||People's United Financial, Inc.||NASDAQGS: PBCT||6.34%||Financials|
|4||Franklin Resources, Inc.||NYSE: BEN||6.28%||Financials|
|5||Regency Centers||NASDAQGS: REG||5.82%||Real estate|
|6||Truist Financial||NYSE: TFC||5.50%||Financials|
|7||International Business Machines||NYSE: IBM||5.43%||Tech|
|8||Omnicom Group Inc.||NYSE: OMC||4.76%||Communication services|
|9||U.S. Bancorp||NYSE: USB||4.71%||Financials|
|10||Raytheon Technologies (merger of Raytheon and United Tech.)||NYSE: RTX||4.69%||Industrials|
|11||NetApp, Inc.||NASDAQGS: NTAP||4.69%||Information Technology|
|12||The PNC Financial Services Group, Inc.||NYSE: PNC||4.62%||Financials|
|13||Eaton Vance Corp.||NYSE: EV||4.34%||Financials|
|14||Nucor Corporation||NYSE: NUE||4.12%||Materials|
|15||United Parcel Service, Inc.||NYSE: UPS||4.09%||Industrials|
|16||M&T Bank Corporation||NYSE: MTB||4.09%||Financials|
|17||Exelon Corporation||NASDAQGS: EXC||4.07%||Utilities|
|18||Archer-Daniels-Midland Company||NYSE: ADM||3.95%||Consumer staples|
|19||3M Company||NYSE: MMM||3.95%||Industrials|
|20||Emerson Electric Co.||NYSE: EMR||3.84%||Industrials|
|21||Sysco Corp.||NYSE: SYY||3.81%||Consumer staples|
|22||Mid-America Apartment Communities||NYSE: MAA||3.61%||Real Estate|
|23||Essex Property Trust, Inc.||NYSE: ESS||3.55%||Real Estate|
|24||MDU Resources Group||NYSE: MDU||3.53%||Utilities|
|25||Cummins Inc.||NYSE: CMI||3.51%||Industrials|
|26||Sonoco Products Co.||NYSE: SON||3.50%||Materials|
|27||Cisco Systems, Inc.||NASDAQGS: CSCO||3.45%||Information Technology|
|28||American Electric Power Company, Inc.||NYSE: AEP||3.36%||Utilities|
|29||The Hartford Financial Services Group, Inc.||NYSE: HIG||3.36%||Financials|
|30||NiSource Inc.||NYSE: NI||3.30%||Utilities|
|31||Caterpillar Inc.||NYSE: CAT||3.23%||Industrials|
|32||Everest Re Group, Ltd.||NYSE: RE||3.13%||Financials|
|33||Bristol-Myers Squibb Company||NYSE: BMY||3.09%||Health care, pharmaceuticals|
|34||The Home Depot, Inc.||NYSE: HD||3.08%||Consumer discretionary|
|35||Bank of America Corporation||NYSE: BAC||3.07%||Financials|
Note: From the original list, 5 stocks have been excluded as they no longer meet the 3% annualized yield threshold.
Centerpoint Energy, an electric and natural gas utility company, is at the top of the list. Since utility stocks are generally considered to be recession-resistant, investors may benefit from both the company’s yield and its defensive qualities.
Financials are the most-represented sector, with 11 companies on the list. Although regulators have pressured European banks to suspend dividend payments, U.S. banks will likely be able to continue their distributions. Top banking executives have argued they have sufficient capital to weather the COVID-19 crisis, and that halting payments would be “destabilizing to investors.”
There are also a number of well-known names on the list, including Home Depot, IBM, and 3M. The latter is the largest maker of respirator masks worldwide, and has been providing critical supplies to the U.S., Canada, and Latin America.
Caution: Volatility Ahead
As the pandemic’s financial impact continues, it’s likely many companies will delay or suspend their dividends. To avoid falling into “yield traps”—a trap in which an attractive yield could be due to a fundamental business problem—investors can screen for the qualities laid out above.
A strong balance sheet, good credit rating, and average or better performance since the downturn can all help point towards stability.
Bridging the Gap: Wealth Isn’t Just for the Wealthy
The UK has a financial adviser gap, leaving about 51 million adults without advice. Learn how wealthtech makes investing accessible for everyone.
In the UK, money is the #1 cause of stress—ranking above physical health, work, or family.
When people begin investing, they see immediate emotional benefits compared to non-investors. In fact, investors are 16 percentage points happier, and 23 percentage points more positive about their well-being.
However, only 37% of Brits hold market-based investments. So why aren’t more people taking steps to invest? Today’s infographic from BlackRock outlines the barriers people face, and how wealthtech can help address these issues at scale.
The Wealth Problem
A variety of hurdles keep people from taking control of their finances.
- Lack of Resources: 59% of Brits feel they don’t have enough money to invest.
- Lack of Knowledge: 39% say a lack of knowledge holds them back.
- Fear of Failure: 34% are afraid of losing everything if they invest.
All of these factors culminate in insufficient investing. In fact, 50% of the €26 trillion European wealth market is currently in uninvested cash, earning zero interest.
What’s the Current Solution?
Traditionally, investment advisers helped tackle these issues. However, investors have faced challenges accessing professional advice in recent years.
A shortage of UK advisers is a main contributing factor:
- There are only 26,700 advisers, who can service an average of 100 clients each.
- This leaves over 51 million adults without professional advice.
Among available advisers, many impose investment minimums or fees that create barriers for lower-income populations. Financial advisers charge an average of £150/hour, and half of all surveyed advisers turned away clients with less than £50,000 to invest.
With so many hurdles to overcome, how can Brits take charge of their investments?
A Modern Solution
Wealth technology—or simply wealthtech—helps address these issues at scale, offering four main digital-first solutions:
- Helps investors build better portfolios.
Gone are the days of rudimentary spreadsheets. With the help of algorithms and machine learning, investors can now automatically build sophisticated portfolios.
- Helps advisors scale their services.
The automation of time-consuming processes allows advisers to service more clients.
- Reaches more people.
Wealthtech is accessible for all, not just the wealthy. For example, micro-investing apps allow investors to make small, regular contributions without paying a commission.
- Modernises infrastructure.
Wealthtech updates old legacy systems with more streamlined, automated systems. As a result, paper-based processes are replaced with mobile transactions that can be done with the click of a button.
These benefits can be applied across various branches of wealth management.
The Wealthtech Ecosystem
Investors can choose one of three main paths, based on their level of knowledge and interest.
“Do It Yourself” Investing
Confident investors who enjoy managing their own money can trade securities through self-directed online platforms.
“Do It For Me” Investing
Novice investors can use platforms that execute trades on their behalf, such as micro-investing or robo-advisers.
“Do It With Me” Investing
For investors in the middle of this spectrum, certain platforms offer a hybrid of digital transactions and professional advice.
With a wide variety of solutions available, investing has never been easier.
It’s clear Brits are open to the shift: 64% say new technology would help them be more involved in their investments.
As wealthtech evolves, it will be seamlessly integrated into daily life as part of a holistic financial services offering. Traditional barriers will be broken down, empowering individuals to take charge of their financial future.
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