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The Evolution of Computer Science in One Infographic

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We take computing power for granted today.

That’s because computers are literally everywhere around us. And thanks to advances in technology and manufacturing, the cost of producing semiconductors is so low that we’ve even started turning things like toys and streetlights into computers.

But how and where did this familiar new era start?

The History of Computer Science

Today’s infographic comes to us from Computer Science Zone, and it describes the journey of how we got to today’s tech-oriented consumer society.

It may surprise you to learn that the humble and abstract groundwork of what we now call computer science goes all the way back to the beginning of the 18th century.

The Evolution of Computer Science in One Infographic

Incredibly, the history of computing goes all the way back to a famous mathematician named Gottfried Wilhem Leibniz.

Leibniz, a polymath living in the Holy Roman Empire in an area that is now modern-day Germany, was quite the talent. He independently developed the field of differential and integral calculus, developed his own mechanical calculators, and was a primary advocate of Rationalism.

It is arguable, however, that the modern impact of his work mostly stems from his formalization of the binary numerical system in 1703. He even envisioned a machine of the future that could use such a system of logic.

From Vacuums to Moore’s Law

The first computers, such as the IBM 650, used vacuum tube circuit modules for logic circuitry. Used up until the early 1960s, they required vast amounts of electricity, failed often, and required constant inspection for defective tubes. They were also the size of entire rooms.

Luckily, transistors were invented and then later integrated into circuits – and 1958 saw the production of the very first functioning integrated circuit by Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments. Shortly after, Gordon Moore of Intel predicted that the number of transistors per integrated circuit would double every year, a prediction now known as “Moore’s Law”.

Moore’s Law, which suggests exponential growth, continued for 50 years until it started scratching its upper limits.

It can’t continue forever. The nature of exponentials is that you push them out and eventually disaster happens.

– Gordon Moore in 2005

It’s now been argued by everyone from The Economist to the CEO of Nvidia that Moore’s Law is over for practical intents and purposes – but that doesn’t mean it’s the end of the road for computer science. In fact, it’s just the opposite.

The Next Computing Era

Computers no longer take up rooms – even very powerful ones now fit in the palm of your hand.

They are cheap enough to put in refrigerators, irrigation systems, thermostats, smoke detectors, cars, streetlights, and clothing. They can even be embedded in your skin.

The coming computing era will be dominated by artificial intelligence, the IoT, robotics, and unprecedented connectivity. And even if things are advancing at a sub-exponential rate, it will still be an incredible next step in the evolution of computer science.

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Maps

Mapped: The State of Facial Recognition Around the World

Mass surveillance is becoming the status quo. This map dives into the countries where facial recognition technology is in place, and how it’s used.

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Mapping The State of Facial Recognition Around the World

View the high resolution version of this infographic by clicking here.

From public CCTV cameras to biometric identification systems in airports, facial recognition technology is now common in a growing number of places around the world.

In its most benign form, facial recognition technology is a convenient way to unlock your smartphone. At the state level though, facial recognition is a key component of mass surveillance, and it already touches half the global population on a regular basis.

Today’s visualizations from SurfShark classify 194 countries and regions based on the extent of surveillance.

Facial Recognition StatusTotal Countries
In Use98
Approved, but not implemented12
Considering technology13
No evidence of use68
Banned3

Click here to explore the full research methodology.

Let’s dive into the ways facial recognition technology is used across every region.

North America, Central America, and Caribbean

In the U.S., a 2016 study showed that already half of American adults were captured in some kind of facial recognition network. More recently, the Department of Homeland Security unveiled its “Biometric Exit” plan, which aims to use facial recognition technology on nearly all air travel passengers by 2023, to identify compliance with visa status.

Facial Recognition North America Map

Perhaps surprisingly, 59% of Americans are actually in favor of implementing facial recognition technology, considering it acceptable for use in law enforcement according to a Pew Research survey. Yet, some cities such as San Francisco have pushed to ban surveillance, citing a stand against its potential abuse by the government.

Facial recognition technology can potentially come in handy after a natural disaster. After Hurricane Dorian hit in late summer of 2019, the Bahamas launched a blockchain-based missing persons database “FindMeBahamas” to identify thousands of displaced people.

South America

The majority of facial recognition technology in South America is aimed at cracking down on crime. In fact, it worked in Brazil to capture Interpol’s second-most wanted criminal.

Facial Recognition South America Map

Home to over 209 million, Brazil soon plans to create a biometric database of its citizens. However, some are nervous that this could also serve as a means to prevent dissent against the current political order.

Europe

Belgium and Luxembourg are two of only three governments in the world to officially oppose the use of facial recognition technology.

Facial Recognition Europe Map

Further, 80% of Europeans are not keen on sharing facial data with authorities. Despite such negative sentiment, it’s still in use across 26 European countries to date.

The EU has been a haven for unlawful biometric experimentation and surveillance.

—European Digital Rights (EDRi)

In Russia, authorities have relied on facial recognition technology to check for breaches of quarantine rules by potential COVID-19 carriers. In Moscow alone, there are reportedly over 100,000 facial recognition enabled cameras in operation.

Middle East and Central Asia

Facial recognition technology is widespread in this region, notably for military purposes.

Facial Recognition Middle East and Central Asia Map

In Turkey, 30 domestically-developed kamikaze drones will use AI and facial recognition for border security. Similarly, Israel has a close eye on Palestinian citizens across 27 West Bank checkpoints.

In other parts of the region, police in the UAE have purchased discreet smart glasses that can be used to scan crowds, where positive matches show up on an embedded lens display. Over in Kazakhstan, facial recognition technology could replace public transportation passes entirely.

East Asia and Oceania

In the COVID-19 battle, contact tracing through biometric identification became a common tool to slow the infection rates in countries such as China, South Korea, Taiwan, and Singapore. In some instances, this included the use of facial recognition technology to monitor temperatures as well as spot those without a mask.

Facial Recognition East Asia Oceania Map

That said, questions remain about whether the pandemic panopticon will stop there.

China is often cited as a notorious use case of mass surveillance, and the country has the highest ratio of CCTV cameras to citizens in the world—one for every 12 people. By 2023, China will be the single biggest player in the global facial recognition market. And it’s not just implementing the technology at home–it’s exporting too.

Africa

While the African continent currently has the lowest concentration of facial recognition technology in use, this deficit may not last for long.

Facial Recognition World Map

Several African countries, such as Kenya and Uganda, have received telecommunications and surveillance financing and infrastructure from Chinese companies—Huawei in particular. While the company claims this has enabled regional crime rates to plummet, some activists are wary of the partnership.

Whether you approach facial recognition technology from public and national security lens or from an individual liberty perspective, it’s clear that this kind of surveillance is here to stay.

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Chart of the Week

Zoom is Now Worth More Than the World’s 7 Biggest Airlines

Zoom benefits from the COVID-19 virtual transition—but other industries aren’t as lucky. The app is now more valuable than the world’s seven largest airlines.

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zoom vs major airlines valuation

Zoom Is Now Worth More Than The 7 Biggest Airlines

Amid the COVID-19 pandemic, many people have transitioned to working—and socializing—from home. If these trends become the new normal, certain companies may be in for a big payoff.

Popular video conferencing company, Zoom Communications, is a prime example of an organization benefiting from this transition. Today’s graphic, inspired by Lennart Dobravsky at Lufthansa Innovation Hub, is a dramatic look at how much Zoom’s valuation has shot up during this unusual period in history.

The Zoom Boom, in Perspective

As of May 15, 2020, Zoom’s market capitalization has skyrocketed to $48.8 billion, despite posting revenues of only $623 million over the past year.

What separates Zoom from its competition, and what’s led to the app’s massive surge in mainstream business culture?

zoom-search-interest

Industry analysts say that business users have been drawn to the app because of its easy-to-use interface and user experience, as well as the ability to support up to 100 participants at a time. The app has also blown up among educators for use in online learning, after CEO Eric Yuan took extra steps to ensure K-12 schools could use the platform for free.

Zoom meeting participants have skyrocketed in past months, going from 10 million in December 2019 to a whopping 300 million as of April 2020.

Zoom vs. Airlines stock chart

The Airline Decline

The airline industry has been on the opposite end of fortune, suffering an unprecedented plummet in demand as international restrictions have shuttered airports:

The world’s top airlines by revenue have fallen in total value by 62% since the end of January:

AirlineMarket Cap Jan 31, 2020 Market Cap May 15, 2020
Southwest Airlines$28.440B$14.04B
Delta$35.680B$12.30B
United$18.790B$5.867B
International Airlines Group$14.760B$4.111B
Lufthansa$7.460B$3.873B
American$11.490B$3.886B
Air France$4.681B$2.137B
Total Market Cap$121.301B$46.214B

Source: YCharts. All market capitalizations listed as of May 15, 2020.

With countries scrambling to contain the spread of COVID-19, many airlines have cut travel capacity, laid off workers, and chopped executive pay to try and stay afloat.

If and when regular air travel will return remains a major question mark, and even patient investors such as Warren Buffett have pulled out from airline stocks.

Airline% Change in Total Returns (Jan 31-May 15, 2020)
United-72.91%
International Airlines Group-72.16%
American-65.76%
Delta-65.39%
Air France-54.34%
Southwest Airlines-56.35%
Lufthansa-48.08%

Source: YCharts, as of May 15, 2020.

The world has changed for the airlines. The future is much less clear to me about how the business will turn out.

—Warren Buffett

What Does the Future Hold?

Zoom’s recent success is a product of its circumstances, but will it last? That’s a question on the mind of many investors and pundits ahead of the company’s Q1 results to be released in June.

It hasn’t been all smooth-sailing for the company—a spate of “Zoom Bombing” incidents, where uninvited people hijacked meetings, brought the app’s security measures under scrutiny. However, the company remained resilient, swiftly providing support to combat the problem.

Meanwhile, as many parts of the world begin taking measures to restart economic activity, airlines could see a cautious return to the skies—although any such recovery will surely be a “slow, long ascent”.

Correction: Changed the graphics to reflect 300 million daily active “meeting participants” as opposed to daily active users.

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