From Greek to Latin: Visualizing the Evolution of the Alphabet
From Greek to Latin: Visualizing the Evolution of the Alphabet
Over the course of 2021, the Greek alphabet was a major part of the news cycle.
COVID-19 variants, which are labeled with Greek letters when becoming a variant of concern, normalized their usage. From the Alpha variant in the UK, to the Delta variant that spread from India to become the dominant global strain, the Greek alphabet was everywhere. Seemingly overnight, the Omicron variant discovered in South Africa has now taken the mantle as the most discussed variant.
But the Greek alphabet is used in other parts of our lives as well. For example, Greek letters are commonly used in mathematics and science, like Sigma (Σ) denoting a sum or Lambda (λ) used to represent the half-life of radioactive material.
And the study of linguistics shows us why using Greek letters in English isn’t completely farfetched. This visualization from Matt Baker at UsefulCharts.com demonstrates how the modern Latin script used in English evolved from Greek, and other, alphabets.
It’s All Proto-Sinaitic to Me
Before there was English, or Latin, or even Greek, there was Proto-Sinaitic.
Considered the first alphabet ever used, the Proto-Sinaitic script was derived in Canaan, around the biblical Land of Israel. It was repurposed from Egyptian hieroglyphs that were commonly seen in the area (its name comes from Mount Sinai), and used to describe sounds instead of meanings.
|Proto-Sinaitic Letter (Reconstructed Name)||Original Meaning|
As the first Semitic script, Proto-Sinaitic soon influenced other Semitic languages. It was the precursor to the Phoenician alphabet, which was used in the area of modern-day Lebanon and spread across the Mediterranean and became the basis for Arabic, Cyrillic, Hebrew, and of course, Greek.
Evolving into the Greek, Roman, and Latin Alphabets
Over time, the alphabet continued to become adopted and evolve across different languages.
The first forms of the Archaic Greek script are dated circa 750 BCE. Many of the letters remained in Modern Greek, including Alpha, Beta, Delta, and even Omicron, despite first appearing more than 2,500 years ago.
Soon the Greek alphabet (and much of its culture) was borrowed into Latin, with Archaic Latin script appearing circa 500 BCE. The evolution into Roman script, with the same recognizable letters used in modern English, occurred 500 years later in 1 CE.
|Proto-Sinaitic||~ 1,750 BCE|
|Phoenician||~ 1,000 BCE|
|Archaic Greek||~ 750 BCE|
|Archaic Latin||~ 500 BCE|
|Roman||~ 1 CE|
Many of the letters which first came from Egyptian hieroglyphs made their way into modern English, but they took a long and convoluted journey. As the graphic above highlights, some letters evolved into multiple forms, while others fell out of use entirely.
And this is just a snapshot of the many scripts and languages that the modern English alphabet evolved from. Lowercase letters came from Roman cursive, which evolved into the Insular and Carolingian scripts before becoming modern lowercase English.
Like many things in the long arc of human culture, alphabets are not as far removed from each other as you might think.
Visualized: The 4 Billion Year Path of Human Evolution
From single cells to bipedalism, humans have come a long way. Explore the fascinating journey of human evolution in this infographic.
The 4 Billion Year Path of Human Evolution
The story of human evolution is a fascinating one, stretching back in an unbroken chain over millions of years.
From the tiniest protocells to modern humans, our species has undergone a remarkable journey of adaptation, innovation, and survival.
In this article, we take a look at the key developmental stages in the evolution of life on Earth that led to the emergence of Homo sapiens—us!
From Protocells to People
Evolution is the result of millions of minute mutations over millions of years, but the evolutionary process that created us can bucketed into a few key categories.
1. Protocells and Early Microorganisms
The first life forms on Earth were simple, single-celled microorganisms known as protocells. These precursor cells lacked a nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles, and they had simple genetic proteins called RNA.
Over time, RNA complexified into the more stable DNA. Protocells slowly developed specialized organelles, becoming more complex microbes that would eventually form eukaryotes – the complex, unicellular organisms that would birth a diverse array of life forms, from simple sponges to complex animals.
2. The First Animals
Dickinsonia is the earliest example of an animal we know of. Though it was a simple, flat creature that lacked a mouth or digestive system, it symbolizes the first multicellular organism of substantial complexity.
Over time, the first sophisticated organ systems began to arise. Bilateral symmetry emerged, as well as early versions of the nervous and circulatory systems. Simple eyes, called eyespots, also appeared around the time that spinal cords and vertebrate creatures began to emerge.
3. Fish and Tetrapods
One of the most significant developments in the evolution of life was the transition from marine to terrestrial environments.
Up until 500 million years ago, all life was sequestered in the sea. Fish were the first vertebrates and introduced additional organs like stomachs, spleens, and body components like scales, teeth, blood, and more. Bony fish arose, and over time their development brought about sophisticated changes to the skeletal system, eventually producing “proto-limbs” that would enable organisms to walk on land.
Researchers are still unsure which specific organism might have first crawled on land, but candidates share these pre-limb characteristics. Tiktaalik is one popular candidate because it had specialized bones that suggest it could support its own weight while moving out of shallow waters.
These creatures eventually became the tetrapods (“four-footed”), and they had features like four-legs, a backbone, and lungs which could absorb oxygen from air. All the amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals that followed are descendants of the original tetrapods.
4. The First Mammals
Around 200 million years ago, the first mammals emerged. These early mammals were small, shrew-like creatures that lived alongside the dinosaurs. Over time, however, mammals evolved hair, specialized teeth, sweat glands to regulate body temperature, and a more efficient circulatory system.
Mammals also brought about features like nocturnality, mammary glands, external genitalia, and a variety of other features that distinguished them from other living species at the time, like birds or reptiles.
5. The Great Apes and First Homo Species
Around 7 million years ago, the first great apes emerged in Africa. These apes, such as orangutans, gorillas, and chimpanzees, were highly intelligent and social creatures that lived in complex communities. Over time, one lineage of apes would give rise to the first members of the genus Homo, which includes our own species.
The main developmental changes during this time were the full-time bipedalism of apes, increasing brain size, and advanced bone development that enabled dexterity for tool construction and hunting. Inventions like fire and clothing arose early in the Homo genus, and eventually complex language, hair loss, and dramatic facial changes would evolve.
Researchers struggle with resolving the exact progression of the Homo species. Many Homo species existed at the same time, and since many fossil records overlap, resolving which ones came first is an area of intense focus.
The Future of Human Evolution
As humans continue to evolve, we can expect to see significant changes in our physical and cognitive abilities over the next 10,000 years.
With the rise of technology and the increasing interconnectedness of the world, we may see a shift towards a more globalized and homogeneous human population, with less genetic diversity.
This has been described as “The Great Averaging”, where genetic diversity minimizes and we start to become more alike.
Other theories suggest that we might develop features like a taller, lighter build, with smaller brains and a less aggressive personality.
However, as with all evolution, these changes will be shaped by a complex interplay of genetic, environmental, and cultural factors. It is impossible to predict exactly how humans will evolve over the next 10,000 years, but one thing is certain: the future of human evolution will be shaped by the choices we make today.
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