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Maps

Every Visible Star in the Night Sky, in One Map

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Visible Stars in the Night Sky Map

Every Visible Star in the Night Sky, in One Map

View the high resolution version of this incredible map by clicking here.

The stars have fascinated humanity since the beginning of civilization, from using them to track the different seasons, to relying on them to navigate thousands of miles on the open ocean.

Today, travelers trek to the ends of the Earth to catch a glimpse of the Milky Way, untouched by light pollution. However, if you’re in the city and the heavens align on a clear night, you might still be able to spot somewhere between 2,500 to 5,000 stars scattered across your field of vision.

This stunning star map was created by Eleanor Lutz, under the Reddit pseudonym /hellofromthemoon, and is a throwback to all the stars and celestial bodies that could be seen by the naked eye on Near Year’s Day in 2000.

Star Light, Star Bright

Stars have served as a basis for navigation for thousands of years. Polaris, also dubbed the North Star in the Ursa Minor constellation, is arguably one of the most influential, even though it sits 434 light years away.

Because of its relative location to the Earth’s axis, Polaris is reliably found in the same spot throughout the year—on this star map, it can be spotted in the top right corner. The Polynesian people famously followed the path of the North Star, along with wave currents, in all their way-finding journeys.

Interestingly, Polaris’ dependability is why it is commonly mistaken as the brightest star, but Sirius actually takes that crown—find it below the Gemini constellation, at the 7HR latitude and -20° longitude coordinates on the visualization. Located in the Canis Majoris constellation, Sirius burns bluish-white, and is one of the hottest objects in the universe with a surface temperature of 17,400°F (9,667°C). Sirius is nearly 40 times brighter than our Sun.

The Egyptians associated Sirius with the goddess Isis, and used its location to predict the annual flooding of the Nile. This also isn’t the only way humans have used visible stars to “predict” the future, as evidenced by the ancient practice of astrology.

Seeking Answers in the Stars

In the star map above, the orange lines denote the twelve signs of the Zodiac, each found roughly along the same band from 10° to -30° longitude. These Zodiac alignments, along with planetary movements, form the basis of astrology, which has been practiced across cultures to predict significant events. While the scientific method has widely demonstrated that astrology doesn’t hold much validity, many people still believe in it today.

The red lines on the visualization signify the constellations officially recognized by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) in 1922. Its ancient Greek origins are recorded on the same map as the blue lines, from which the modern constellation boundaries are based. Here’s a deeper dive into all 88 IAU constellations:

ConstellationEnglish NameCategoryBrightest star
AndromedaChained Maiden/ PrincessCreature/ CharacterAlpheratz
AntliaAir PumpObjectα Antliae
Apus Bird of ParadiseAnimalα Apodis
♒ AquariusWater BearerCreature/ CharacterSadalsuud
AquilaEagleAnimalAltair
AraAltarObjectβ Arae
♈ AriesRamAnimalHamal
AurigaCharioteerCreature/ CharacterCapella
BoötesHerdsmanCreature/ CharacterArcturus
CaelumEngraving ToolObjectα Caeli
CamelopardalisGiraffeAnimalβ Camelopardalis
♋ CancerCrabAnimalTarf
Canes VenaticiHunting DogsAnimalCor Caroli
Canis MajorGreat DogAnimalSirius
Canis MinorLesser DogAnimalProcyon
♑ CapricornusSea GoatCreature/ CharacterDeneb Algedi
CarinaKeelObjectCanopus
CassiopeiaSeated QueenCreature/ CharacterSchedar
CentaurusCentaurCreature/ CharacterRigil Kentaurus
CepheusKingCreature/ CharacterAlderamin
CetusSea MonsterCreature/ CharacterDiphda
ChamaeleonChameleonAnimalα Chamaeleontis
CircinusCompassObjectα Circini
ColumbaDoveAnimalPhact
Coma BerenicesBernice's HairCreature/ Characterβ Comae Berenices
Corona AustralisSouthern CrownObjectMeridiana
Corona BorealisNorthern CrownObjectAlphecca
CorvusCrowAnimalGienah
CraterCupObjectδ Crateris
CruxSouthern CrossObjectAcrux
CygnusSwanAnimalDeneb
DelphinusDolphinAnimalRotanev
DoradoSwordfishAnimalα Doradus
DracoDragonCreature/ CharacterEltanin
EquuleusLittle HorseAnimalKitalpha
EridanusRiverObjectAchernar
FornaxFurnaceObjectDalim
♊ GeminiTwinsCreature/ CharacterPollux
GrusCraneAnimalAlnair
HerculesHerculesCreature/ CharacterKornephoros
HorologiumPendulum ClockObjectα Horologii
HydraFemale Water SnakeCreature/ CharacterAlphard
HydrusMale Water SnakeCreature/ Characterβ Hydri
IndusIndianCreature/ Characterα Indi
LacertaLizardAnimalα Lacertae
♌ LeoLionAnimalPraecipua
Leo MinorLesser LionAnimalRegulus
LepusHareAnimalArneb
LibraScalesObjectZubeneschamali
LupusWolfAnimalα Lupi
LynxLynxAnimalα Lyncis
LyraLyreObjectVega
MensaTable MountainObjectα Mensae
MicroscopiumMicroscopeObjectγ Microscopii
MonocerosUnicornCreature/ Characterβ Monocerotis
MuscaFlyAnimalα Muscae
NormaCarpenter's SquareObjectγ2 Normae
OctansOctantObjectν Octantis
OphiuchusSerpent BearerCreature/ CharacterRasalhague
OrionHunterCreature/ CharacterRigel
PavoPeacockAnimalPeacock
PegasusWinged HorseCreature/ CharacterEnif
PerseusHeroCreature/ CharacterMirfak
PhoenixPhoenixCreature/ CharacterAnkaa
PictorPainter's EaselObjectα Pictoris
♓ PiscesFishesAnimalAlpherg
Piscis AustrinusSouthern FishCreature/ CharacterFomalhaut
PuppisSternObjectNaos
PyxisMariner's CompassObjectα Pyxidis
ReticulumReticle (Eyepiece)Objectα Reticuli
SagittaArrowObjectγ Sagittae
♐ SagittariusArcherCreature/ CharacterKaus Australis
♏ ScorpiusScorpionAnimalAntares
SculptorSculptorCreature/ Characterα Sculptoris
ScutumShieldObjectα Scuti
SerpensSerpentAnimalUnukalhai
SextansSextantObjectα Sextantis
♉ TaurusBullAnimalAldebaran
TelescopiumTelescopeObjectα Telescopii
TriangulumTriangleObjectAtria
Triangulum AustraleSouthern TriangleObjectβ Trianguli
TucanaToucanAnimalα Tucanae
Ursa MajorGreat BearAnimalAlioth
Ursa MinorLittle BearAnimalPolaris
VelaSailsObjectγ2 Velorum
♍ VirgoMaidenCreature/ CharacterSpica
VolansFlying FishAnimalβ Volantis
VulpeculaFoxAnimalAnser

(Source: International Astronomical Union)

Into the Depths of Deep Space

The quirk of naming stars after flora and fauna doesn’t end there. Our night sky also reveals visible galaxies, nebulae, and clusters far, far away—but they’re named after familiar birds, natural objects, and mythical creatures. See if you can find some of these interesting names:

  • Open Cluster: Wild Duck Cluster
  • Open Cluster: Eagle Nebula
  • Open Cluster: Beehive Cluster
  • Open Cluster: Butterfly Cluster
  • Emission Nebula: North American
  • Emission Nebula: Trifid Nebula
  • Emission Nebula: Lagoon Nebula
  • Emission Nebula: Orion Nebula
  • Open Cluster with Emission Nebula: Swan Nebula
  • Open Cluster with Emission Nebula: Christmas Tree Cluster
  • Open Cluster with Emission Nebula: Rosette Nebula
  • Globular Cluster: Hercules Cluster

There’s an interesting concentration of unnamed open and globular clusters just above the Sagittarius constellation, between 18-20HR latitude and -20° to -30° longitude. Another one can be seen next to Cassiopeia, just below Polaris between 1HR-3HR latitude, at 60° longitude. The only two visible spiral galaxies, Andromeda and Pinwheel, are located close between 0-2HR latitude and 30°-40° longitude.

The Relentless Passage of Time

We now know that the night sky isn’t as static as people used to believe. Although it’s Earth’s major pole star today, Polaris was in fact off-kilter by roughly 8° a few thousand years ago. Our ancestors saw the twin northern pole stars, Kochab and Pherkad, where Polaris is now.

This difference is due to the Earth’s natural axial tilt. Eight degrees may not seem like much, but because of this angle, the constellations we gaze at today are the same, yet completely different from the ones our ancestors looked up at.

If you liked exploring this star map, be sure to check out the geology of Mars from the same designer.

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Maps

Mapped: Top Countries by Tourist Spending

How much do your vacations contribute to your destination of choice? This visualization shows the countries that receive the most tourist spending.

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Mapped: Top Countries by Tourist Spending

Many people spend their days looking forward to their next getaway. But do you know exactly how much these vacation plans contribute economically to your chosen destination?

Today’s visualization from HowMuch.net highlights the countries in which tourists spend the most money. Locations have been resized based on spending amounts, which come from the latest data from the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO).

Oh, The Places Tourists Will Go

Across the different regions, Europe’s combined tourist spending dominates at $570 billion. Easy access to closely-located countries, both via rail networks and a shared currency, may be a reason why almost 710 million visitors toured the region in 2018.

Asia-Pacific, which includes Australia and numerous smaller islands, saw the greatest growth in tourism expenditures. Total spending reached $435 billion in 2018—a 7% year-over-year increase, from 348 million visitors. Not surprisingly, some areas such as Macao (SAR) tend to rely heavily on tourists as a primary economic driver.

Here’s how other continental regions fared, in terms of tourist spending and visitors:

  • Americas
    Total expenditures: $333 billion
    Total visitors: 216 million
    Expenses per visitor: $1,542
  • Middle East
    Total expenditures: $73 billion
    Total visitors: 60 million
    Expenses per visitor: $1,216
  • Africa
    Total expenditures: $38 billion
    Total visitors: 67 million
    Expenses per visitor: $567

Of course, these numbers only paint a rudimentary picture of global tourism, as they vary greatly even within these regions. Let’s look closer at the individual country data for 2018, compared to previous years.

The Top Tourist Hotspots, By Country

It seems that many tourists are gravitating towards the same destinations, as evidenced by both the number of arrivals and overall expenditures for 2017 and 2018 alike.

Country2018 Spending2018 Arrivals Country2017 Spending2017 Arrivals
1. U.S. 🇺🇸$214.5B79.6M1. U.S. 🇺🇸$210.7B74.8M
2. Spain 🇪🇸$73.8B82.8M2. Spain 🇪🇸$68B81.8M
2. France 🇫🇷$67.4B89.4M3. France 🇫🇷$60.7B86.9M
4. Thailand 🇹🇭$63B38.3M4. Thailand 🇹🇭$57.5B35.4M
5. UK 🇬🇧$51.9B36.3M5. UK 🇬🇧51.2B37.7M
6. Italy 🇮🇹$49.3B62.1M6. Italy 🇮🇹$44.2B58.3M
7. Australia 🇦🇺$45B9.2M7. Australia 🇦🇺$41.7B8.8M
8. Germany 🇩🇪$43B38.9M8. Germany 🇩🇪$39.8B37.5M
9. Japan 🇯🇵$41.1B31.2M9. Macao (SAR) 🇲🇴$35.6B17M
10. China 🇨🇳$40.4B62.9M10. Japan 🇯🇵$34.1B28.6M

Source: World Tourism Organization (UNWTO).
Note that data is for international tourism only and does not include domestic tourism.

The top contenders have remained fairly consistent, as each country brings something unique to the table—from natural wonders to historic and man-made structures.

Where Highest-Spending Tourists Come From

The nationality of tourists also seems to be a factor in these total expenditures. Chinese tourists spent $277 billion internationally in 2018, likely thanks to the increasing consumption of an emerging, affluent middle class.

Interestingly, this amount is almost twice the combined $144 billion that American tourists spent overseas in the same year.

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Demographics

Mapped: The Dramatic Global Rise of Urbanization (1950–2020)

Few global trends have matched the profound impact of urbanization. Today’s map looks back at 70 years of movement in over 1,800 cities.

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The Dramatic Global Rise of Urbanization (1950–2020)

In the 21st century, few trends have matched the economic, environmental, and societal impact of rapid urbanization.

A steady stream of human migration out of the countryside, and into swelling metropolitan centers, has shaken up the world’s power dynamic in just decades.

Today’s eye-catching map via Cristina Poiata from Z Creative Labs looks at 70 years of movement and urban population growth in over 1,800 cities worldwide. Where is the action?

Out of the Farms and Into the Cities

The United Nations cites two intertwined reasons for urbanization: an overall population increase that’s unevenly distributed by region, and an upward trend in people flocking to cities.

Since 1950, the world’s urban population has risen almost six-fold, from 751 million to 4.2 billion in 2018. In North America alone, significant urban growth can be observed in the video for Mexico and the East Coast of the United States as this shift takes place.

Global Urban Population vs. Rural

Over the next few decades, the rural population is expected to plateau and eventually decline, while urban growth will continue to shoot up to six billion people and beyond.

The Biggest Urban Hot-Spots

Urban growth is going to happen all across the board.

Rapidly rising populations in megacities and major cities will be significant contributors, but it’s also worth noting that the number of regional to mid-sized cities (500k to 5 million inhabitants) will swell drastically by 2030, becoming more influential economic hubs in the process.

global cities by size 1990 to 2030

Interestingly, it’s mainly cities across Asia and Africa — some of which Westerners are largely unfamiliar with — that may soon wield enormous influence on the global stage.

It’s expected that over a third of the projected urban growth between now and 2050 will occur in just three countries: India, China, and Nigeria. By 2050, it is projected that India could add 416 million urban dwellers, China 255 million, and Nigeria 189 million.

Urbanization and its Complications

Rapid urbanization isn’t only linked to an inevitable rise in city populations.

Some megacities are actually experiencing population contractions, in part due to the effects of low fertility rates in Asia and Europe. For example, while the Greater Tokyo area contains almost 38 million people today, it’s expected to shrink starting in 2020.

As rapid urbanization continues to shape the global economy, finding ways to provide the right infrastructure and services in cities will be a crucial problem to solve for communities and organizations around the world. How we deal with these issues — or how we don’t — will set the stage for the next act in the modern economic era.

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