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Every Visible Star in the Night Sky, in One Map

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Visible Stars in the Night Sky Map

Every Visible Star in the Night Sky, in One Map

View the high resolution version of this incredible map by clicking here.

The stars have fascinated humanity since the beginning of civilization, from using them to track the different seasons, to relying on them to navigate thousands of miles on the open ocean.

Today, travelers trek to the ends of the Earth to catch a glimpse of the Milky Way, untouched by light pollution. However, if you’re in the city and the heavens align on a clear night, you might still be able to spot somewhere between 2,500 to 5,000 stars scattered across your field of vision.

This stunning star map was created by Eleanor Lutz, under the Reddit pseudonym /hellofromthemoon, and is a throwback to all the stars and celestial bodies that could be seen by the naked eye on Near Year’s Day in 2000.

Star Light, Star Bright

Stars have served as a basis for navigation for thousands of years. Polaris, also dubbed the North Star in the Ursa Minor constellation, is arguably one of the most influential, even though it sits 434 light years away.

Because of its relative location to the Earth’s axis, Polaris is reliably found in the same spot throughout the year—on this star map, it can be spotted in the top right corner. The Polynesian people famously followed the path of the North Star, along with wave currents, in all their way-finding journeys.

Interestingly, Polaris’ dependability is why it is commonly mistaken as the brightest star, but Sirius actually takes that crown—find it below the Gemini constellation, at the 7HR latitude and -20° longitude coordinates on the visualization. Located in the Canis Majoris constellation, Sirius burns bluish-white, and is one of the hottest objects in the universe with a surface temperature of 17,400°F (9,667°C). Sirius is nearly 40 times brighter than our Sun.

The Egyptians associated Sirius with the goddess Isis, and used its location to predict the annual flooding of the Nile. This also isn’t the only way humans have used visible stars to “predict” the future, as evidenced by the ancient practice of astrology.

Seeking Answers in the Stars

In the star map above, the orange lines denote the twelve signs of the Zodiac, each found roughly along the same band from 10° to -30° longitude. These Zodiac alignments, along with planetary movements, form the basis of astrology, which has been practiced across cultures to predict significant events. While the scientific method has widely demonstrated that astrology doesn’t hold much validity, many people still believe in it today.

The red lines on the visualization signify the constellations officially recognized by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) in 1922. Its ancient Greek origins are recorded on the same map as the blue lines, from which the modern constellation boundaries are based. Here’s a deeper dive into all 88 IAU constellations:

ConstellationEnglish NameCategoryBrightest star
AndromedaChained Maiden/ PrincessCreature/ CharacterAlpheratz
AntliaAir PumpObjectα Antliae
Apus Bird of ParadiseAnimalα Apodis
♒ AquariusWater BearerCreature/ CharacterSadalsuud
AquilaEagleAnimalAltair
AraAltarObjectβ Arae
♈ AriesRamAnimalHamal
AurigaCharioteerCreature/ CharacterCapella
BoötesHerdsmanCreature/ CharacterArcturus
CaelumEngraving ToolObjectα Caeli
CamelopardalisGiraffeAnimalβ Camelopardalis
♋ CancerCrabAnimalTarf
Canes VenaticiHunting DogsAnimalCor Caroli
Canis MajorGreat DogAnimalSirius
Canis MinorLesser DogAnimalProcyon
♑ CapricornusSea GoatCreature/ CharacterDeneb Algedi
CarinaKeelObjectCanopus
CassiopeiaSeated QueenCreature/ CharacterSchedar
CentaurusCentaurCreature/ CharacterRigil Kentaurus
CepheusKingCreature/ CharacterAlderamin
CetusSea MonsterCreature/ CharacterDiphda
ChamaeleonChameleonAnimalα Chamaeleontis
CircinusCompassObjectα Circini
ColumbaDoveAnimalPhact
Coma BerenicesBernice's HairCreature/ Characterβ Comae Berenices
Corona AustralisSouthern CrownObjectMeridiana
Corona BorealisNorthern CrownObjectAlphecca
CorvusCrowAnimalGienah
CraterCupObjectδ Crateris
CruxSouthern CrossObjectAcrux
CygnusSwanAnimalDeneb
DelphinusDolphinAnimalRotanev
DoradoSwordfishAnimalα Doradus
DracoDragonCreature/ CharacterEltanin
EquuleusLittle HorseAnimalKitalpha
EridanusRiverObjectAchernar
FornaxFurnaceObjectDalim
♊ GeminiTwinsCreature/ CharacterPollux
GrusCraneAnimalAlnair
HerculesHerculesCreature/ CharacterKornephoros
HorologiumPendulum ClockObjectα Horologii
HydraFemale Water SnakeCreature/ CharacterAlphard
HydrusMale Water SnakeCreature/ Characterβ Hydri
IndusIndianCreature/ Characterα Indi
LacertaLizardAnimalα Lacertae
♌ LeoLionAnimalPraecipua
Leo MinorLesser LionAnimalRegulus
LepusHareAnimalArneb
LibraScalesObjectZubeneschamali
LupusWolfAnimalα Lupi
LynxLynxAnimalα Lyncis
LyraLyreObjectVega
MensaTable MountainObjectα Mensae
MicroscopiumMicroscopeObjectγ Microscopii
MonocerosUnicornCreature/ Characterβ Monocerotis
MuscaFlyAnimalα Muscae
NormaCarpenter's SquareObjectγ2 Normae
OctansOctantObjectν Octantis
OphiuchusSerpent BearerCreature/ CharacterRasalhague
OrionHunterCreature/ CharacterRigel
PavoPeacockAnimalPeacock
PegasusWinged HorseCreature/ CharacterEnif
PerseusHeroCreature/ CharacterMirfak
PhoenixPhoenixCreature/ CharacterAnkaa
PictorPainter's EaselObjectα Pictoris
♓ PiscesFishesAnimalAlpherg
Piscis AustrinusSouthern FishCreature/ CharacterFomalhaut
PuppisSternObjectNaos
PyxisMariner's CompassObjectα Pyxidis
ReticulumReticle (Eyepiece)Objectα Reticuli
SagittaArrowObjectγ Sagittae
♐ SagittariusArcherCreature/ CharacterKaus Australis
♏ ScorpiusScorpionAnimalAntares
SculptorSculptorCreature/ Characterα Sculptoris
ScutumShieldObjectα Scuti
SerpensSerpentAnimalUnukalhai
SextansSextantObjectα Sextantis
♉ TaurusBullAnimalAldebaran
TelescopiumTelescopeObjectα Telescopii
TriangulumTriangleObjectAtria
Triangulum AustraleSouthern TriangleObjectβ Trianguli
TucanaToucanAnimalα Tucanae
Ursa MajorGreat BearAnimalAlioth
Ursa MinorLittle BearAnimalPolaris
VelaSailsObjectγ2 Velorum
♍ VirgoMaidenCreature/ CharacterSpica
VolansFlying FishAnimalβ Volantis
VulpeculaFoxAnimalAnser

(Source: International Astronomical Union)

Into the Depths of Deep Space

The quirk of naming stars after flora and fauna doesn’t end there. Our night sky also reveals visible galaxies, nebulae, and clusters far, far away—but they’re named after familiar birds, natural objects, and mythical creatures. See if you can find some of these interesting names:

  • Open Cluster: Wild Duck Cluster
  • Open Cluster: Eagle Nebula
  • Open Cluster: Beehive Cluster
  • Open Cluster: Butterfly Cluster
  • Emission Nebula: North American
  • Emission Nebula: Trifid Nebula
  • Emission Nebula: Lagoon Nebula
  • Emission Nebula: Orion Nebula
  • Open Cluster with Emission Nebula: Swan Nebula
  • Open Cluster with Emission Nebula: Christmas Tree Cluster
  • Open Cluster with Emission Nebula: Rosette Nebula
  • Globular Cluster: Hercules Cluster

There’s an interesting concentration of unnamed open and globular clusters just above the Sagittarius constellation, between 18-20HR latitude and -20° to -30° longitude. Another one can be seen next to Cassiopeia, just below Polaris between 1HR-3HR latitude, at 60° longitude. The only two visible spiral galaxies, Andromeda and Pinwheel, are located close between 0-2HR latitude and 30°-40° longitude.

The Relentless Passage of Time

We now know that the night sky isn’t as static as people used to believe. Although it’s Earth’s major pole star today, Polaris was in fact off-kilter by roughly 8° a few thousand years ago. Our ancestors saw the twin northern pole stars, Kochab and Pherkad, where Polaris is now.

This difference is due to the Earth’s natural axial tilt. Eight degrees may not seem like much, but because of this angle, the constellations we gaze at today are the same, yet completely different from the ones our ancestors looked up at.

If you liked exploring this star map, be sure to check out the geology of Mars from the same designer.

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Maps

Wired World: 35 Years of Submarine Cables in One Map

Watch the explosive growth of the global submarine cable network, and learn who’s funding the next generation of cables.

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submarine cable network

You could be reading this article from nearly anywhere in the world and there’s a good chance it loaded in mere seconds.

Long gone are the days when images would load pixel row by pixel row. Now, even high-quality video is instantly accessible from almost everywhere. How did the internet get so fast? Because it’s moving at the speed of light.

The Information Superhighway

The miracle of modern fiber optics can be traced to a single man, Narinder Singh Kapany. The young physicist was skeptical when his professors asserted that light ‘always travels in a straight line’. His explorations into the behavior of light eventually led to the creation of fiber optics—essentially, beaming light through a thin glass tube.

The next step to using fiber optics as a means of communication was lowering the cable’s attenuation rate. Throughout the 1960-70s, companies made gains in manufacturing, reducing the number of impurities and allowing light to cross great distances without a dramatic decrease in signal intensity.

By the mid-1980s, long distance fiber optic cables had finally reached the feasibility stage.

Crossing the Pond

The first intercontinental fiber optic cable was strung across the floor of the Atlantic Ocean in 1988. The cable—known as TAT-8*—was spearheaded by three companies; AT&T, France Télécom, and British Telecom. The cable was able to carry the equivalent of 40,000 telephone channels, a ten-fold increase over its galvanic predecessor, TAT-7.

Once the kinks of the new cable were worked out, the floodgates were open. During the course of the 1990s, many more cables hit the ocean floor. By the dawn of the new millennium, every populated continent on Earth was connected by fiber optic cables. The physical network of the internet was beginning to take shape.

As today’s video from ESRI shows, the early 2000s saw a boom in undersea cable development, reflecting the uptick in internet usage around globe. In 2001 alone, eight new cables connected North America and Europe.

From 2016-2020, over 100 new cables were laid with an estimated value of $14 billion. Now, even the most remote Polynesian islands have access to high-speed internet thanks to undersea cables.

*TAT-8 does not appear in the video above as it was retired in 2002.

The Shifting Nature of Cable Construction

Even though nearly every corner of the globe is now physically connected, the rate of cable construction is not slowing down.

This is due to the increasing capacity of new cables and our appetite for high-quality video content. New cables are so efficient that the majority of potential capacity along major cable routes will come from cables that are less than five years old.

Traditionally, a consortium of telecom companies or governments would fund cable construction, but tech companies are increasingly funding their own submarine cable networks.

tech company submarine cables

Source

Amazon, Microsoft and Google own close to 65% market share in cloud data storage, so it’s understandable that they’d want to control the physical means of transporting that data as well.

These three companies now own 63,605 miles of submarine cable. While laying cable is a costly endeavor, it’s necessary to meet surging demand—content providers’ share of data transmission skyrocketed from around 8% to nearly 40% over the past decade.

A Bright Future for Dark Fiber

At the same time, more aging cables will be taken offline. Even though signals are no longer traveling through this network of “dark fiber”, it’s still being put to productive use. It turns out that undersea telecom cables make a very effective seismic network, helping researchers study offshore earthquakes and the geologic structures on the ocean floor.

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Energy

Mapped: The World’s Biggest Oil Discoveries Since 1868

Since 1868, there had been 1,232 oil discoveries over 500 million barrels of oil. This map plots these discoveries to reveal global energy hot spots.

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Mapped: The World’s Biggest Oil Discoveries Since 1868

Oil and gas discoveries excite markets and nations with the prospect of profits, tax revenues, and jobs. However, geological processes did not distribute them equally throughout the Earth’s crust and their mere presence does not guarantee a windfall for whatever nation under which they lie.

Entire economies and nations have been built on the discovery and exploitation of oil and gas, while some nations have misused this wealth─or projected growth just never materialized.

Today’s chart comes to us from research compiled by World Bank economist Jim Cust and Natural Resource Governance Institute economist David Mihalyi and it plots major oil discoveries since 1868.

The 20 Biggest Oil Discoveries

This map includes 1,232 discoveries of recoverable reserves over 500 million barrels of oil equivalent (BOE) From 1868 to 2010.

The discoveries cluster in certain parts of the world, covering 46 countries, and are of significant magnitude for each country’s economy. The average discovery is worth 1.4% of a country’s GDP today, based on the cash value from their production or net present value (NPV).

Of the total 1,232 discoveries, these are the 20 largest oil and gas fields:

FieldOnshore/OffshoreLocationDiscoveryProduction startRecoverable oil, past and future (billion barrels)
Ghawar FieldOnshoreSaudi Arabia1948195188-104
Burgan FieldOnshoreKuwait1937194866-72
Gachsaran FieldOnshoreIran1927193066
Mesopotamian Foredeep BasinOnshoreKuwaitn/an/a66-72
Bolivar Coastal FieldOnshoreVenezuela1917192230-32
Safaniya FieldOffshoreKuwait/Saudi Arabia1951195730
Esfandiar FieldOffshoreIran1965n/a30
Kashagan FieldOffshoreKazakhstan2000201330
Aghajari FieldOnshoreIran1938194028
Tengiz FieldOnshoreKazakhstan1979199326-40
Ahvaz FieldOnshoreIran1953195425
Upper Zakum FieldOffshoreAbu Dhabi, UAE1963196721
Cantarell FieldOffshoreMexico1976198118-35
Rumaila FieldOnshoreIraq1953195417
Romashkino FieldOnshoreRussia Volga-Ural1948194916-17
Marun FieldOnshoreIran1963196616
Daqing FieldOnshoreChina1959196016
Shaybah FieldOnshoreSaudi Arabia1998199815
West Qurna FieldOnshoreIraq1973201215-21
Samotlor FieldOnshore
Russia, West Siberia
1965196914-16

The location of these deposits reveals a certain pattern to geopolitical flashpoints and their importance to the global economy.

While these discoveries have brought immense advantages in the form of cheap fuel and massive revenues, they have also altered and challenged how nations govern their natural wealth.

The Future of Resource Wealth: A Curse or a Blessing?

A ‘presource curse’ could follow in the wake of the discovery, whereby predictions of projected growth and feelings of euphoria turn into disappointment.

An oil discovery can impose detrimental consequences on an economy long before a single barrel leaves the ground. Ideally, a discovery should increase the economic output of a country that claims the oil. However, after major discoveries, the projected growth sometimes does not always materialize as predicted.

Getting from discovery to sustained prosperity depends on a number of steps. Countries must secure investment to develop a project to production, and government policy must respond by preparing the economy for an inflow of investment and foreign currency. However, this is a challenging prospect, as the appetite for these massive projects appears to be waning.

In a world working towards reducing its dependence on fossil fuels, what will happen to countries that depend on oil wealth when demand begins to dwindle?

Countries can no longer assume their oil and gas resources will translate into reliable wealth — instead, it is how you manage what you have now that counts.

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