What Did World Leaders Study at School?
When it comes to the extremely challenging job of running a nation, a university education can help in setting up a leader for success. The vast majority of heads of government have some sort of post-secondary education – 83%, in fact – but their areas of study vary greatly.
Some leaders, like Alain Berset of Switzerland, specifically studied political science or law in university. Other leaders, such as Paraguayan president, Horacio Cartes, took a more roundabout path to the top, having studied aviation mechanics in the United States.
The following maps, from SavingSpot, are an informative look at what national leaders around the world studied in school.
Note: Hover over the maps to learn about leaders and their educational background.
Donald Trump: America’s president holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Economics from the University of Pennsylvania Wharton School of Business.
Justin Trudeau: Canada’s prime minister holds two degrees: a Bachelor of Arts in Literature from McGill University, and a Bachelor of Education from the University of British Columbia.
Enrique Peña Nieto: Mexico’s president holds a law degree from Universidad Panamerica, and an MBA from the Monterrey Institute of Technology.
Angela Merkel: Germany’s chancellor has a heavy-hitting educational background. Merkel was educated at Karl Marx University, in Leipzig, where she studied physics from 1973 to 1978. She was awarded a doctorate for her thesis on quantum chemistry in 1986, and was recognized for her proficiency in Russian and mathematics.
Emmanuel Macron: The French president studied philosophy at the University of Paris-Ouest Nanterre La Défense. As well, Macron obtained a master’s degree in public affairs at the Paris Institute of Political Studies.
Stefan Löfven: Sweden’s prime minister took a more unconventional path to government. After completing military service in the Swedish Air Force, Löfven became a welder and subsequently a union representative. Eventually, Löfven became the first chairman of IF Metall, a newly formed trade union representing over 300,000 workers.
Vladimir Putin: Before joining the KGB in 1975, Putin studied Law at the Leningrad State University (now Saint Petersburg State University).
Xi Jinping: Xi studied chemical engineering at Beijing’s prestigious Tsinghua University. During this time, China was fully immersed in the Cultural Revolution. Xi studied as a “Worker-Peasant-Soldier student”, which included blocks of time spent doing farm work and studying Marxism–Leninism–Mao Zedong thought.
John Magufuli: Tanzania’s president has an extensive educational background, earning masters and doctorate degrees in chemistry from The University of Dar es Salaam.
Uhuru Kenyatta: The Kenyan president studied economics, political science, and government at Amherst College in Massachusetts.
Michel Temer: Brazil’s president attended the Law School of the University of São Paulo, and later completed a doctorate in public law at the Pontifical Catholic University of São Paulo.
Mauricio Macri: Before becoming an analyst at SIDECO Americana, Argentina’s president received a bachelor’s degree in civil engineering from the Pontifical Catholic University of Argentina. He also attended Columbia Business School, the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, and the Universidad del CEMA in Buenos Aires.
Malcolm Turnbull: Australia’s prime minister graduated from the University of Sydney with a Bachelor of Arts and a Bachelor of Laws, before earning a Bachelor of Civil Law at Brasenose College, Oxford.
Enele Sopoaga: The prime minister of the tiny island nation of Tuvalu is one of many world leaders educated in the United Kingdom. Sopoaga earned a Certificate in Diplomatic Studies from Oxford University, and a master’s degree from the University of Sussex.
How Much Student Debt Does Each State Hold?
Crippling student debt in the U.S. has reached a record high of $1.5 trillion nationwide. Today’s map breaks down which states bear the highest burden.
How Much Student Debt Does Each State Hold?
Education may be priceless, but the costs of obtaining it are becoming steeper by the day.
Almost half of all university-educated Americans rely on loans to pay for their higher education, with very few graduating debt-free. Total U.S. student debt has more than doubled in the last decade—reaching a record high of $1.5 trillion today.
Today’s data visualization from HowMuch.net breaks down the average student debt per capita, to uncover which states shoulder the highest burden in this growing crisis.
Students are Paying Through the Nose
Before diving into the graphic, let’s take a quick look at why student debt is racking up. The ballooning costs to attend college today compared to thirty years ago is one driving factor.
Source: The College Board 2018 report.
What’s more, these figures don’t include the expenses for accommodation and other supplies, which can add another $15,000-$17,000 per year.
The United States of Student Debt
In the state map above, it’s immediately obvious that Washington D.C. tops the list. While the nation’s capital is the most educated metropolitan area in the country, it also suffers from $13,320 in student debt per capita.
At approximately 147% above than the national average of $5,390, Washington D.C.’s debt burden per capita is almost double that of the state in second place. Georgia comes in with $7,250 debt per capita, 34.5% above the national average.
|State||Student Debt per Capita||Difference from Average|
|District Of Columbia||$13,320||147.1%|
Rounding out the five states with the most student debt per capita are Maryland, Minnesota, and Ohio, in that order. On the flip side, Wyoming has the least debt per capita ($3,610), which is 33.0% lower than the national average. Hawaii follows right behind at $3,780, and 29.9% below the national average.
Interestingly, a growing population on the West Coast helps to lower the debt burden for states like California, even despite the strong presence of prestigious schools. Home to Stanford, USC, UCLA, CalTech, and more, the Golden State surprisingly only has $4,530 in debt per capita.
The Last Straw?
Today’s Americans are more educated than ever before, but the sticker shock is causing some whiplash. This overall trend of spiraling student debt has significant implications on a person’s life trajectory. With many graduates unable to repay their loans on time, more of them are delaying major life milestones, such as starting a family or becoming a homeowner.
In efforts to curb this crisis, many 2020 presidential hopefuls have already started proposing plans to cancel or forgive student debt—with close attention on mid- to low-income households that would benefit the most from reduced loans.
The History of the World, in One Video
This epic attempt to condense the history of the world — including the rise and fall of empires — fits into a single video.
Throughout the history of the world, many civilizations have risen and fallen.
You may be familiar with the achievements of prominent societies like the Romans, Mongols, or Babylonians, but how do all of their stories intertwine over time and geography?
Visualizing the History of the World
Today’s video comes to us from Ollie Bye, and it attempts to integrate the histories of all major civilizations known by historians into a single, epic video.
Similar to the Histomap, it’s pretty much impossible for a video like this to be perfect due to biases and a general lack of data. However, it’s still a compelling attempt at showing global history in a short and sweet fashion.
Let’s look at some specific moments on the video that particularly stand out.
750 AD: The Umayyad Caliphate
One of the largest empires in history, the Umayyad Caliphate peaked sometime around 750 AD.
Conquering most of North Africa, the Middle East, and even parts of Europe (including modern-day Spain, Portugal, and France), the Umayyads commanded a formidable territory with an area of 11,100,000 km² (4,300,000 sq. mi) and encompassing 33 million people.
1279: Mongol Dominance
No history of the world is complete without a mention of the Mongols.
Nearby societies have always been on edge when nomadic tribes in the Eurasian Steppe entered into organized confederations. Similar to the Huns or various Turk federations, the Mongols were known for their proficiency with horses, bows, and tactics like the feigned retreat.
Under the leadership of Temüjin — also known as Genghis Khan — the Mongols conquered one of the largest empires by land.
The empire reached its greatest extent just two years after the death of Genghis Khan.
Later on, it fragmented into smaller empires that were also quite notable in the context of world history. For example, Kublai Khan — the grandson of Genghis Khan — even went on to begin the influential Yuan Dynasty in China.
1346: The Black Death
The video also shows other vital stats, such as an estimate of global population through the ages.
In the mid-14th century, you can see this number take a rare U-turn, as millions of people die from the infamous and deadly Bubonic Plague.
The Black Death — one of the most devastating pandemics in the history of the world — hit Europe in 1346, and it eventually killed 30-60% of the continent’s population. There is no exact figure on the final death toll, but historians estimate it to be somewhere between 75 and 200 million people throughout Eurasia.
1418: The Age of Discovery
The video also provides a 10,000-foot view of the Age of Discovery, a period of time in which European powers explored the world’s oceans.
This colonial period marks the beginning of globalization, creating wide-ranging impacts that set the stage for more modern history.
In the video, it’s possible to see European colonies develop in all parts of the world, as well as how they eventually morphed into the countries that dot the globe today.
Playing the History Game
While it is certainly ambitious, not everyone will agree that this is a successful attempt at portraying world history – even in the limited scope of time allotted.
One key detail that seems to be missing, for example, is showing the development of the indigenous societies that existed in North America for thousands of years. That said, it’s also not clear what data and records are available to show these maps over many centuries of time.
Despite the possible flaws, the video does pack a lot of information into a short period of time, creating a compelling opportunity for learning and discussion. Like the Histomap, it may not be a definitive history of the world – but instead, it’s a useful attempt that stimulates our appetite for more information about the world and the societies that inhabit it.
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