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The Most Significant Cyber Attacks from 2006-2020, by Country

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Significant Cyber Attacks

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The Briefing

  • From 2006 to 2020, the U.S. experienced 156 significant cyber attacks—more than the UK, India, and Germany combined
  • A “significant” cyber attack refers to a hack into a country’s government agency, a defense or high-tech company, or a crime with losses of more than $1M

Significant Cyber Attacks from 2006-2020, by Country

Committing a cyber crime can have serious consequences. In the U.S., a cyber criminal can receive up to 20 years in prison for hacking into a government institution if it compromises national security.

Yet, despite the consequences, cyber criminals continue to wreak havoc across the globe. But some countries seem to be targeted more than others.

Using data from Specops Software, this graphic looks at the countries that have experienced the most significant cyber attacks over the last two decades.

RankCountry / RegionNumber of Significant Cyber Attacks (2006-2020)
1🇺🇸 United States156
2🇬🇧 United Kingdom47
3🇮🇳 India23
4🇩🇪 Germany21
5🇰🇷 South Korea18
6🇦🇺 Australia16
7🇺🇦 Ukraine16
8🇨🇳 China15
9🇮🇷 Iran15
10🇸🇦 Saudi Arabia15
11🇯🇵 Japan13
12🇨🇦 Canada12
13🇫🇷 France11
14🇮🇱 Israel11
15🇵🇰 Pakistan9
16🇷🇺 Russia8
17🇭🇰 Hong Kong7
18🇻🇳 Vietnam6
19🇹🇷 Turkey6
20🇰🇵 North Korea5

The U.S. comes in first place, with 156 recorded cyber attacks. That’s an average of 11 significant attacks per year, which is more than Russia’s had in 14 years.

What are the Most Common Types?

While there are many different types of cyber attacks, Specops highlights the four most commonly used for significant cyber crimes:

  • Structured Query Language (SQL) Injection Attack
    SQL is the code used to communicate with a database. In an SQL injection attack, the hacker writes vindictive SQL code and inserts it into a victim’s database, in order to access private information.
  • A man-in-the-middle (MitM)
    This form of attack happens when a cyber criminal hacks into a communication channel between two people, and eavesdrops on their online exchanges.
  • Phishing Attack
    When a cyber criminal poses as a legitimate institution and emails a victim to gain personal details like login credentials, home address, credit card information.
  • Denial of Service Attack (DoS)
    This involves flooding a victim’s system with traffic, to the point where their network is inaccessible. The hacker doesn’t gain any valuable information from this style of attack.

»Like this? Here’s another article you might enjoy: The 15 Biggest Data Breaches in the Last 15 Years

Where does this data come from?

Source: Specops Software
Details: Report is based on each entry made by the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) in their record of significant cyber-attacks between May 2006 and June 2020.

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Datastream

Euro 2020: Qualified Nations and Past Winners

After a year-long delay, the 2020 UEFA European Championship is back with new rules, reduced spectators, and fierce competition.

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Euro 2020 past winners

The Briefing

  • The 2020 UEFA European Football Championship will kick off Friday, June 11th 2021 after a year-long delay due to COVID-19
  • The tournament will take place across 11 host cities and feature new rules, reduced spectators, and fierce competition

The 2020 European Championship Returns with New Rules

After a year-long delay, the 2020 UEFA European Championship is set to kick off what will be the largest international sports tournament to take place since the pandemic.

While the final stage of the tournament typically takes place in one or two nations, this year’s will be played across 11 different countries.

Running from June 11th to July 11th 2021, the opening game between Italy and Turkey will kick off at the Stadio Olimpico in Rome, and the final will take place at London’s Wembley Stadium.

COVID-19’s Impact on Teams and Spectators

Aside from the initial year-long delay, COVID-19 has changed how teams and spectators will participate in the tournament.

Squads have been expanded from 23 to 26 players, and coaches will be permitted to call up more players if COVID-19 infections force players into isolation.

For spectators, individual stadiums within host cities have announced varying capacities ranging from 20-100%, with strict stadium entry requirements across the board. Since these capacities are pre-tournament estimates, we’ll have to wait until matchday to see how many ticket-holders are comfortable attending the fixtures in person.

Host Stadium and CitySpectator Capacity
Johann Cruijff ArenA, Amsterdam25-45%
Baku Olympic Stadium, Baku50%
Arena Națională, Bucharest25-45%
Puskás Aréna, BudapestAiming for 100%
Parken Stadium, Copenhagen25-45%
Hampden Park, Glasgow25-45%
Wembley Stadium, LondonMinimum of 25%
Football Arena Munich (Allianz Arena), MunichMinimum of 14,500 spectators (~22%)
Stadio Olimpico, Rome25-45%
Estadio La Cartuja, Seville25-45%
Krestovsky Stadium (Gazprom Arena), Saint Petersburg50%

Source: UEFA

More Substitutions and the Video Assistant Referee System

This edition of the tournament will also feature two new rule changes to the action on the field.

Coaches will now be able to make up to five substitutions (six if the match goes to extra time), a change first introduced in domestic leagues to allow players more rest as match calendars became congested.

Another key change which was already in play at the 2018 FIFA World Cup is the Video Assistant Referee (VAR) system. This system appoints a match official who reviews the head referee’s decisions with video footage, and allows the head referee to conduct an on-field video review and potentially change decisions.

Strong Competition Among Euro 2020’s Favorites

Despite current world champions France remaining as undeniable favorites, bookies are putting England to win the tournament (despite a fairly young squad) partially due to the home field advantage in the semi-finals and final.

Spain, Germany, and Italy remain formidable competitors, and Belgium’s golden generation will have one final shot at silverware after their third place finish at the 2018 FIFA World Cup.

European champions Portugal are another obvious threat, as Cristiano Ronaldo will be looking to become the tournament’s top goalscorer of all time (currently tied with Michel Platini at 9 goals).

While the 2020 edition of UEFA’s European Championship features a variety of on-field and off-the-field changes, the trophy truly feels up for grabs and is a welcome return to international football for fans around the world.

»Like this? Then you might enjoy this article, The Top 10 Football Clubs by Market Value

Where does this data come from?

Source: UEFA

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Datastream

COVID-19 Vaccine Prices: Comparing the U.S. and EU

Compared to America, the EU has paid significantly less for a range of COVID-19 vaccines. Here’s a look at vaccine prices in each region.

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Vaccines Prices

The Briefing

  • The U.S. paid 32.1% more per dose for the Pfizer vaccine, compared to the EU
  • Between the two areas, the Sanofi vaccine has one of the smallest prices gaps of only 12.9%

Comparing COVID Vaccine Prices between the U.S. and EU

Over two billion COVID-19 vaccine doses have been administered around the world.

But the price governments have paid for the vaccine varies, depending on the region or country. Here’s a look at five major vaccine manufacturers, and their price per dose in the U.S. compared to the EU.

COVID-19 Vaccine Prices: Cost Per Dose

Generally speaking, the EU has paid significantly less than America for a range of COVID-19 vaccines. Pfizer has the biggest price gap, with the U.S. paying 32.1% more per dose.

ManufacturerU.S. Price (per dose)EU Price (per dose)% Difference U.S. is paying
Pfizer/BioNTech$19.50$14.7632.1%
Moderna$15.00$18.00-20.0%
Sanofi$10.50$9.3012.9%
Johnson & Johnson$10.00$8.5017.6%
AstraZeneca$4.00$3.5014.3%

There are a few factors that might explain the price difference. One is early funding—Germany donated millions towards Pfizer’s development.

And while the U.S. did commit to purchasing hundreds of millions of doses of the Pfizer vaccine, the country didn’t provide any funding for the vaccine’s actual development.

Moderna is the only vaccine on the list that is actually cheaper in the U.S., at $15.00 per dose. However, considering that Moderna’s CEO had initially predicted governments would be charged $25-$37 per dose, it looks like both the U.S. and EU managed to negotiate a good deal.

Immunity is the Biggest Cost Saver

At the end of the day, the cost of the vaccine itself is pretty insignificant compared to the economic and emotional toll of an ongoing pandemic.

For instance, a study out of Harvard University estimated the total economic cost of COVID-19 in the U.S. to be in the $16.1 trillion range.

»Want to learn more? Check out our COVID-19 information hub to help put the past year into perspective

Where does this data come from?

Source: Unicef
Notes: Values are in $USD

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