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Cultivating Cannabis: The Journey from Seed to Harvest

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The following content is sponsored by Water Ways Technologies.

Cannabis cultivation

Cultivating Cannabis: The Journey from Seed to Harvest

Cannabis is emerging from the shadows of strict regulation, prompting the growth of a global market worth almost $25 billion today. This green rush has led to increased revenues throughout the entire cannabis supply chain—most notably in cannabis cultivation.

Such growth is rippling across industries such as energy and agriculture technology, with innovation allowing for greater scale.

Today’s infographic from Water Ways Technologies follows the journey of the cannabis plant, and explores cutting-edge technology that will fuel the future of cannabis cultivation.

Breaking Down the Cultivation Process

Cannabis is an annual plant, meaning it naturally goes through its entire life cycle in one year. However, this cycle is shortened to 3 months in commercial cultivation to improve productivity.

Plants can be grown from either a seed or a clone. The cloning method guarantees consistency, cost savings, and provides genetic stability from a disease-free source. All of these factors contribute to its popularity with commercial growers and the medical cannabis community.

Each stage requires different variables to ensure the highest standards are being met.

    1: Creating a Mother Plant: 3 months, 4 times a year

Mother plants create an endless supply of clones, making this stage the most crucial. The mother plant starts as a seed, chosen for desirable qualities that the grower wants to replicate—like aroma, flavor, and yield.

    2: Making a Clone: 7-10 days

Growers then take clippings from the chosen mother plant, and dip each one in water and fertilizer. They are then soaked in rooting fluid and placed in a plug (individual cell), before entering an incubator.

The clippings remain here until they finish rooting. The incubator maintains the plant’s moisture by facilitating leaf absorption.

    3: Vegetation Process: 3-4 weeks

The clones are transferred to growing rooms and placed into a light substance similar to soil. They are moved on to flood benches—large tables that re-circulate excess water and fertilizer—which enable the optimal uptake of nutrients.

During this phase, the clones require 18 hours of light and 6 hours of darkness. There must be a constant analysis of the radiation levels to combat any damage from the artificial light source.

    4: Flowering: 6-8 weeks

Following the vegetation process, the plants are separated into different flowering rooms. During this phase, buds grow and develop a solid cannabinoid and terpene profile. Terpenes are organic compounds that give cannabis varieties their distinctive aromas like citrus, berry, mint, and pine.

    5: Post-harvest: 1-3 weeks

The cannabis plant is harvested once it reaches maturity. The flowers are de-budded, trimmed, and set on drying trays in a post-harvest room with low humidity, before they are ready for extraction.

This final stage requires a substantial amount of time and attention to detail, to ensure the best quality and most potent product possible.

Cultivating the Future of Cannabis

Efficiently producing high-quality, consistent cannabis will help meet growing consumer demand. Water Ways Technologies is an agro-tech company helping to propel this growth, by providing cultivators with data-driven insights from their precise irrigation system.

With a strong understanding of the full cannabis life cycle, Water Ways Technologies ensures that adjustments can be made at different stages throughout the growing process, resulting in the highest standards, and wider profit margins for investors.

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An Introduction to MSCI ESG Indexes

With an extensive suite of ESG indexes on offer, MSCI aims to support investors as they build a more personalized and resilient portfolio.

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An Introduction to MSCI ESG Indexes

There are various portfolio objectives within the realm of sustainable investing.

For example, some investors may want to build a portfolio that reflects their personal values. Others may see environmental, social, and governance (ESG) criteria as a tool for improving long-term returns, or as a way to create positive impact. A combination of all three of these motivations is also possible.

To support investors as they embark on their sustainable journey, our sponsor, MSCI, offers over 1,500 purpose-built ESG indexes. In this infographic, we’ll take a holistic view at what these indexes are designed to achieve.

An Extensive Suite of ESG & Climate Indexes

Below, we’ll summarize the four overarching objectives that MSCI’s ESG & climate indexes are designed to support.

Objective 1: Integrate a broad set of ESG issues

Investors with this objective believe that incorporating ESG criteria can improve their long-term risk-adjusted returns.

The MSCI ESG Leaders indexes are designed to support these investors by targeting companies that have the highest ESG-rated performance from each sector of the parent index.

For those who do not wish to deviate from the parent index, the MSCI ESG Universal indexes may be better suited. This family of indexes will adjust weights according to ESG performance to maintain the broadest possible universe.

Objective 2: Generate social or environmental benefits

A common challenge that impact investors face is measuring their non-financial results.

Consider an asset owner who wishes to support gender diversity through their portfolios. In order to gauge their success, they would need to regularly filter the entire investment universe for updates regarding corporate diversity and related initiatives.

In this scenario, linking their portfolios to an MSCI Women’s Leadership Index would negate much of this groundwork. Relative to a parent index, these indexes aim to include companies which lead their respective countries in terms of female representation.

Objective 3: Exclude controversial activities

Many institutional investors have mandates that require them to avoid certain sectors or industries. For example, approximately $14.6 trillion in institutional capital is in the process of divesting from fossil fuels.

To support these efforts, MSCI offers indexes that either:

  • Exclude individual sectors such as fossil fuels, tobacco, or weapons;
  • Exclude companies from a combination of these sectors; or
  • Exclude companies that are not compatible with certain religious values.

Objective 4: Identify climate risks and opportunities

Climate change poses a number of wide-reaching risks and opportunities for investors, making it difficult to tailor a portfolio accordingly.

With MSCI’s climate indexes, asset owners gain the tools they need to build a more resilient portfolio. The MSCI Climate Change indexes, for example, reduce exposure to stranded assets, increase exposure to solution providers, and target a minimum 30% reduction in emissions.

An Index for Every Objective

Regardless of your motivation for pursuing sustainable investment, the need for an appropriate benchmark is something that everyone shares.

With an extensive suite of ESG indexes designed specifically for sustainability and climate change, MSCI aims to support asset owners as they build a more unique and personalized portfolio.

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Tracked: The U.S. Utilities ESG Report Card

This graphic acts as an ESG report card that tracks the ESG metrics reported by different utilities in the U.S.—what gets left out?

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NPUC Utilities ESG Report Card Share

Tracked: The U.S. Utilities ESG Report Card

As emissions reductions and sustainable practices become more important for electrical utilities, environmental, social, and governance (ESG) reporting is coming under increased scrutiny.

Once seen as optional by most companies, ESG reports and sustainability plans have become commonplace in the power industry. In addition to reporting what’s needed by regulatory state laws, many utilities utilize reporting frameworks like the Edison Electric Institute’s (EEI) ESG Initiative or the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) Standards.

But inconsistent regulations, mixed definitions, and perceived importance levels have led some utilities to report significantly more environmental metrics than others.

How do U.S. utilities’ ESG reports stack up? This infographic from the National Public Utilities Council tracks the ESG metrics reported by 50 different U.S. based investor-owned utilities (IOUs).

What’s Consistent Across ESG Reports

To complete the assessment of U.S. utilities, ESG reports, sustainability plans, and company websites were examined. A metric was considered tracked if it had concrete numbers provided, so vague wording or non-detailed projections weren’t included.

Of the 50 IOU parent companies analyzed, 46 have headquarters in the U.S. while four are foreign-owned, but all are regulated by the states in which they operate.

For a few of the most agreed-upon and regulated measures, U.S. utilities tracked them almost across the board. These included direct scope 1 emissions from generated electricity, the utility’s current fuel mix, and water and waste treatment.

Another commonly reported metric was scope 2 emissions, which include electricity emissions purchased by the utility companies for company consumption. However, a majority of the reporting utilities labeled all purchased electricity emissions as scope 2, even though purchased electricity for downstream consumers are traditionally considered scope 3 or value-chain emissions:

  • Scope 1: Direct (owned) emissions.
  • Scope 2: Indirect electricity emissions from internal electricity consumption. Includes purchased power for internal company usage (heat, electrical).
  • Scope 3: Indirect value-chain emissions, including purchased goods/services (including electricity for non-internal use), business travel, and waste.

ESG Inconsistencies, Confusion, and Unimportance

Even putting aside mixed definitions and labeling, there were many inconsistencies and question marks arising from utility ESG reports.

For example, some utilities reported scope 3 emissions as business travel only, without including other value chain emissions. Others included future energy mixes that weren’t separated by fuel and instead grouped into “renewable” and “non-renewable.”

The biggest discrepancies, however, were between what each utility is required to report, as well as what they choose to. That means that metrics like internal energy consumption didn’t need to be reported by the vast majority.

Likewise, some companies didn’t need to report waste generation or emissions because of “minimal hazardous waste generation” that fell under a certain threshold. Other metrics like internal vehicle electrification were only checked if the company decided to make a detailed commitment and unveil its plans.

As pressure for the electricity sector to decarbonize continues to increase at the federal level, however, many of these inconsistencies are roadblocks to clear and direct measurements and reduction strategies.

National Public Utilities Council is the go-to resource for all things decarbonization in the utilities industry. Learn more.

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