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Which Jobs Will Be Most Impacted by ChatGPT?

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Visualizing the impact of artificial intelligence on the labor market

Jobs Most Impacted by ChatGPT and Similar AI Models

On November 30, 2022, OpenAI heralded a new era of artificial intelligence (AI) by introducing ChatGPT to the world.

The AI chatbot stunned users with its human-like and thorough responses. ChatGPT could comprehend and answer a variety of different questions, make suggestions, research and write essays and briefs, and even tell jokes (amongst other tasks).

Many of these skills are used by workers in their jobs across the world, which begs the question: which jobs will be transformed, or even replaced, by generative AI in the coming future?

This infographic from Harrison Schell visualizes the March 2023 findings of OpenAI on the potential labor market impact of large language models (LLMs) and various applications of generative AI, including ChatGPT.

Methodology

The OpenAI working paper specifically examined the U.S. industries and jobs most “exposed” to large language models like GPT, which the chatbot ChatGPT operates on.

Key to the paper is the definition of what “exposed” actually means:

“A proxy for potential economic impact without distinguishing between labor-augmenting or labor-displacing effects.” – OpenAI

Thus, the results include both jobs where humans could possibly use AI to optimize their work, along with jobs that could potentially be automated altogether.

OpenAI found that 80% of the American workforce belonged to an occupation where at least 10% of their tasks can be done (or aided) by AI. One-fifth of the workforce belonged to an occupation where 50% of work tasks would be impacted by artificial intelligence.

The Jobs Most and Least at Risk of AI Disruption

Here is a list of jobs highlighted in the paper as likely to see (or already seeing) AI disruption, where AI can reduce the time to do tasks associated with the occupation by at least 50%.

Analysis was provided by a variety of human-made models as well as ChatGPT-4 models, with results from both showing below:

Jobs Categorized ByAI Exposure
AccountantsAI100%
Admin and legal assistantsAI100%
Climate change policy analystsAI100%
Reporters & journalistsAI100%
MathematiciansHuman & AI100%
Tax preparersHuman 100%
Financial analystsHuman100%
Writers & authorsHuman100%
Web designersHuman100%
Blockchain engineersAI97.1%
Court reportersAI96.4%
ProofreadersAI95.5%
Correspondence clerksAI95.2%
Survey researchersHuman84.0%
Interpreters/translatorsHuman82.4%
PR specialistsHuman80.6%
Animal scientistsHuman77.8%

Editor’s note: The paper only highlights some jobs impacted. One AI model found a list of 84 additional jobs that were “fully exposed”, but not all were listed. One human model found 15 additional “fully exposed” jobs that were not listed.

Generally, jobs that require repetitive tasks, some level of data analysis, and routine decision-making were found to face the highest risk of exposure.

Perhaps unsurprisingly, “information processing industries” that involve writing, calculating, and high-level analysis have a higher exposure to LLM-based artificial intelligence. However, science and critical-thinking jobs within those industries negatively correlate with AI exposure.

On the flipside, not every job is likely to be affected. Here’s a list of jobs that are likely least exposed to large language model AI disruption.

Jobs Least Exposed to AI
AthletesShort-order cooks
Large equipment operatorsBarbers/hair stylists
Glass installers & repairersDredge operators
Automotive mechanicsPower-line installers/repairers
Masons, carpenters, roofersOil field maintenance workers
Plumbers, painters, pipefittersServers, dishwashers, bartenders

Naturally, hands-on industries like manufacturing, mining, and agriculture were more protected, but still include information processing roles at risk.

Likewise, the in-person service industry is also expected to see minimal impact from these kinds of AI models. But, patterns are beginning to emerge for job-seekers and industries that may have to contend with artificial intelligence soon.

Artificial Intelligence Impacts on Different Levels of Jobs

OpenAI analyzed correlations between AI exposure in the labor market against a job’s requisite education level, wages, and job-training.

The paper found that jobs with higher wages have a higher exposure to LLM-based AI (though there were numerous low-wage jobs with high exposure as well).

Job ParameterAI Exposure Correlation
WagesDirect
EducationDirect
TrainingInverse

Professionals with higher education degrees also appeared to be more greatly exposed to AI impact, compared to those without.

However, occupations with a greater level of on-the-job training had the least amount of work tasks exposed, compared to those jobs with little-to-no training.

Will AI’s Impact on the Job Market Be Good or Bad?

The potential impact of ChatGPT and similar AI-driven models on individual job titles depends on several factors, including the nature of the job, the level of automation that is possible, and the exact tasks required.

However, while certain repetitive and predictable tasks can be automated, others that require intangibles like creative input, understanding cultural nuance, reading social cues, or executing good judgement cannot be fully hands-off yet.

And keep in mind that AI exposure isn’t limited to job replacement. Job transformation, with workers utilizing the AI to speed up or improve tasks output, is extremely likely in many of these scenarios. Already, there are employment ads for “AI Whisperers” who can effectively optimize automated responses from generalist AI.

As the AI arms race moves forward at a rapid pace rarely seen before in the history of technology, it likely won’t take long for us to see the full impact of ChatGPT and other LLMs on both jobs and the economy.

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This article was published as a part of Visual Capitalist's Creator Program, which features data-driven visuals from some of our favorite Creators around the world.

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Ranked: The Most Popular AI Tools

Artificial intelligence had its breakout year in 2023. As AI adoption grows, what were the most popular AI products last year?

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Chart of popular AI tools in 2023

Ranked: The Most Popular AI Tools of 2023

Artificial intelligence had its breakout year in 2023, with large language models (LLMs) and text-to-image generators capturing the attention and imagination of technologists and investors alike.

Similar to other recent breakthrough technologies like the internet and the smartphone, the early stage of AI’s tech adoption cycle has already seen the creation of highly-used software products.

This visualization from our 2024 Global Forecast Series report uses data from Writerbuddy and Coatue to rank and visualize the most popular AI tools of 2023 along with key recent tech adoption cycles and the software products that defined them.

The Most Visited Artificial Intelligence Websites of 2023

Not surprisingly, ChatGPT, OpenAI’s product that sparked the artificial intelligence boom in late 2022, emerged as the most popular AI tool of 2023.

ChatGPT dominated the industry’s web visits with more than 60% of visits from September 2022 to August 2023, racking up 14.6 billion visits to their website.

Following ChatGPT is another chatbot, Character.AI, which rather than being a singular LLM for general and productivity-related user queries is a collection of characters (also known as “dialog agents”) that users can freely converse with. These range from popular characters from TV shows and video games to dating coaches and interactive strategy and text-based games.

AI ToolTotal Web Visits (Sept 2022 to Aug 2023)Share of Industry Total
ChatGPT14.6B60.2%
Character.AI3.8B15.8%
QuillBot1.1B4.7%
Midjourney500.4M2.1%
Hugging Face316.6M1.3%
Google Bard241.6M1.0%
NovelAI238.7M1.0%
CapCut203.8M0.8%
JanitorAI192.4M0.8%
CivitAI177.2M0.7%

Another writing tool, QuillBot, rounds out the top three most popular AI web products of 2023, with these top three collectively accounting for more than 80% of visits to AI product websites.

Besides LLMs, leading AI image generator Midjourney was the fourth-most popular AI tool in 2023 and is followed by Hugging Face, an open source community which features hundreds of unique AI models that include LLMs, image generators, and other freely accessible AI tools.

This visual is from our 2024 Global Forecast Series Report:

Global Forecast Series 2024

Get full access to the series, which compiles insights from 700+ expert predictions for what will happen in 2024, by becoming a VC+ member today.

Software Creation in Tech Adoption Cycles

Despite still being in the early stages of its adoption, artificial intelligence has already produced tools that have garnered billions of visits and thousands of paying users for premium versions of AI products.

The launch and propagation of software products is a key driver for the user adoption of breakthrough technologies. Apps like Uber and Airbnb helped define the utility of smartphones as a technology, similar to what early websites like Google, Amazon, and YouTube did for the internet.

While this first wave of AI tools is already beyond what the world could’ve imagined even just a couple of years ago, as the public adoption of AI continues we’ll only see more powerful and unique AI tools and products.

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