Which Countries Have the Most Similar Values?
Which Countries Value the Same Things?
Our culture can have significant impacts on our belief systems and our values.
In fact, research has shown that our cultural influences can rewire our brains, which can impact our visual perceptions and how we view the world around us.
Because of this, where we’re from can greatly influence what we prioritize in life. This graphic by Anders Sundell illustrates the primary values of 94 different countries, and highlights which places share similar values.
Sundell used data from the World Values Survey, an international survey that interviews hundreds of thousands of participants from across the globe.
For the purposes of this graphic, Sundell focused on one specific section of the survey that asked respondents to rate various aspects of their life on a scale of one (very important) to four (not important at all). Six aspects were included: family, friends, leisure time, politics, work, and religion.
From there, Sundell calculated the median score for each country and identified their primary value, then grouped them based on their similarities. On this netgraph, each country is connected to three other countries that share the most similar values.
Generally speaking, countries that prioritize friends and leisure are concentrated on the far left of the graphic, whereas countries that value religion and work fall more to the right.
Each Country’s Primary Values
Interestingly, family came first for all 94 countries—except Indonesia, where religion was considered most important.
Because of this, Sundell identified each country’s primary value besides family, which was much more diverse across the board:
|Abbr.||Country||Continent||Primary Value (Exc. Family)|
|AR||🇦🇷 Argentina||South America||Work|
|BO||🇧🇴 Bolivia||South America||Work|
|BA||🇧🇦 Bosnia and Herzegovina||Europe||Work|
|BR||🇧🇷 Brazil||South America||Work|
|CA||🇨🇦 Canada||North America||Leisure|
|CL||🇨🇱 Chile||South America||Leisure|
|CO||🇨🇴 Colombia||South America||Work|
|CZ||🇨🇿 Czech Republic||Europe||Friends|
|EC||🇪🇨 Ecuador||South America||Work|
|GT||🇬🇹 Guatemala||North America||Work|
|HT||🇭🇹 Haiti||North America||Work|
|HK||🇭🇰 Hong Kong||Asia||Friends|
|MX||🇲🇽 Mexico||North America||Work|
|NZ||🇳🇿 New Zealand||Oceania||Friends|
|NI||🇳🇮 Nicaragua||North America||Work|
|MK||🇲🇰 North Macedonia||Europe||Work|
|PE||🇵🇪 Peru||South America||Work|
|PR||🇵🇷 Puerto Rico||North America||Work|
|ZA||🇿🇦 South Africa||Africa||Work|
|KR||🇰🇷 South Korea||Asia||Friends|
|TT||🇹🇹 Trinidad and Tobago||South America||Religion|
|GB||🇬🇧 United Kingdom||Europe||Friends|
|US||🇺🇸 United States||North America||Friends|
|UY||🇺🇾 Uruguay||South America||Work|
After family, work was the most valued, with 46 different countries identifying it as their second-highest priority. Friends came second, followed by religion, and then lastly, leisure.
Almost half of the countries on the list perceive work as the most important aspect of their lives, apart from family.
South American countries, in particular, put an emphasis on work, with seven of nine South American countries valuing work over friends and politics. The only outliers on the continent were Chile (leisure), and Trinidad and Tobago (religion).
Friends were identified as a top priority in 25 of the 94 countries on the list. Europe in particular valued friendship, especially in Norway and Sweden.
While these Nordic countries prioritize their existing friendships, research shows that they aren’t generally keen on making new ones. A global survey found that expats in Sweden, Norway, and Denmark found it extremely difficult to make new friends.
18 of the 94 countries ranked religion as a top value.
These countries, mainly in Asia and Africa, are predominantly Islamic except for a few. For instance, in Trinidad and Tobago, the largest religious group is Christianity.
Only five countries on the list ranked leisure as a top priority—Japan, Canada, Andorra, Chile, and Finland. Finland takes leisure seriously. Its capital, Helsinki, was recognized as the number one city in the world for work-life balance. And Canada’s capital, Ottawa, ranked sixth on the ranking.
This article was published as a part of Visual Capitalist's Creator Program, which features data-driven visuals from some of our favorite Creators around the world.
Comparing Population Pyramids Around the World
Population pyramids can show a country’s demographic advantages and challenges at a glance. See how different parts of the world stack up.
Understanding and Comparing Population Pyramids
Demographic data can reveal all kinds of insights about a population, from the country’s fertility and mortality rates to how certain events and policies have shaped the makeup of a population.
Population pyramids are one of the best ways to visualize population data, and comparing the pyramids of various countries and regions side-by-side can reveal unexpected insights and differences between groups.
This graphic uses population data from the United Nations to compare the demographics of some select nations and regions of the world, showcasing how much age distributions can vary.
Three Types of Population Pyramids
Although population pyramids can come in all shapes and sizes, most generally fall into three distinct categories:
- Expansive Pyramids: Recognized by their traditional “pyramid-like” shape with a broad base and narrow top, expansive pyramids reflect a population with a high birth rate along with a high mortality rate which is most common in developing countries.
- Constrictive Pyramids: With a narrow base and thicker middle and top sections of the pyramid, constrictive pyramids often occur in developed economies whose populations have low birth rates and long life expectancies.
- Stationary Pyramids: These pyramids showcase an evenly distributed population across age groups, often found in newly-developed countries which have stable birth and mortality rates.
Each population pyramid is essentially a visual snapshot of a nation’s current demographic breakdown, shaped by fluctuating birth and mortality rates as well as changes to immigration and social policies.
Understanding the inherent risks associated with different pyramid types can help give insight into the challenges these populations face.
The Risks of Different Population Pyramid Types
Each type of population pyramid structure has unique challenges and advantages often characterized by the country or region’s current stage of economic development.
Populations with expansive pyramids, such as the one representing the continent of Africa, have the advantage of a larger youth and working-aged population, however this advantage can be rendered null if job growth, education, and health care aren’t prioritized.
Countries with constrictive pyramids like Japan face the challenge of supporting their outsized aging population with a diminishing working-aged population. While immigration and increasing birth rates can help in both the short and long term, due to the working population being outnumbered, countries with constrictive pyramids must find ways to increase their productivity to avoid potential declines in economic growth.
China and India’s Demographics Compared
After the world’s population reached eight billion people last year, 2023 brought a new population milestone as India overtook China as the world’s most populous country.
When you compare the two nations’ population pyramids, you can see how India’s population has a strong base of young and working-aged people compared to China’s more constrictive population pyramid that also features a higher median age.
This demographic difference is largely shaped by China’s one-child policy which since 2021 was loosened to be a three-child policy. As a result, China’s total fertility rate is around 1.2 today, in contrast to India’s total fertility rate of 2.0.
While India is set to ride the productivity boom of its large working-age population, the country will have to ensure it can keep its population pyramid stable as the majority of the population ages and total fertility rates continue to decline.
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