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Visualized: The Head of State of Each Country, by Age and Generation

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This graphic shows the head of state of each nation, their age and generation, and how they relate to their country's population

The Head of State of Each Country By Age and Generation

How many world leaders are in each generation?

This visualization by Edit Gyenge visualizes the ages of every nation’s head of state as of March 22, 2023, comparing them with the median population of the respective country. It uses data from the CIA World Factbook and Wikipedia.

Editor’s note: This visualization looks specifically at heads of state. It should be mentioned that depending on the system of government in a country, heads of state shown here may or may not have actual political power. In some countries, the head of state may be a ceremonial position that does not impact day-to-day governance.

The Oldest and Youngest Heads of State

Here is the full list of heads of state, from oldest to youngest:

CountryHead of StateGenderAgeGeneration
CameroonPaul BiyaMale90Silent Generation
PalestineMahmoud AbbasMale88Silent Generation
Saudi ArabiaSalmanMale88Silent Generation
NorwayHarald VMale86Silent Generation
KuwaitSheikh Nawaf Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-SabahMale86Silent Generation
IranAli KhameneiMale84Silent Generation
DenmarkMargrethe IIFemale83Silent Generation
IrelandMichael D. HigginsMale82Silent Generation
ItalySergio MattarellaMale82Silent Generation
NamibiaHage GeingobMale82Silent Generation
Cote d'IvoireAlassane OuattaraMale81Silent Generation
MaltaGeorge VellaMale81Silent Generation
Equatorial GuineaTeodoro Obiang Nguema MbasogoMale81Silent Generation
ZimbabweEmmerson MnangagwaMale81Silent Generation
United StatesJoe BidenMale81Silent Generation
NigeriaMuhammadu BuhariMale81Silent Generation
DominicaCharles SavarinMale80Silent Generation
Congo, Republic of theDenis Sassou NguessoMale80Silent Generation
BangladeshAbdul HamidMale79Silent Generation
AustriaAlexander Van der BellenMale79Silent Generation
GhanaNana Akufo-AddoMale79Silent Generation
IraqAbdul Latif RashidMale79Silent Generation
UgandaYoweri MuseveniMale79Silent Generation
NepalRam Chandra PaudelMale79Silent Generation
LiechtensteinHans-Adam IIMale78Silent Generation
BrazilLuiz Inácio Lula da SilvaMale78Silent Generation
LaosThongloun SisoulithMale78Silent Generation
NicaraguaDaniel OrtegaMale78Silent Generation
AlgeriaAbdelmadjid TebbouneMale78Silent Generation
EritreaIsaias AfwerkiMale77Baby Boomers
SwedenCarl XVI GustafMale77Baby Boomers
BruneiHassanal BolkiahMale77Baby Boomers
SamoaAfioga Tuimaleali'ifano Va'aleto'a Sualauvi IIMale76Baby Boomers
DjiboutiIsmaïl Omar GuellehMale76Baby Boomers
FinlandSauli NiinistöMale75Baby Boomers
Antigua and BarbudaCharles IIIMale75Baby Boomers
AustraliaCharles IIIMale75Baby Boomers
BahamasCharles IIIMale75Baby Boomers
BelizeCharles IIIMale75Baby Boomers
CanadaCharles IIIMale75Baby Boomers
GrenadaCharles IIIMale75Baby Boomers
JamaicaCharles IIIMale75Baby Boomers
New ZealandCharles IIIMale75Baby Boomers
Papua New GuineaCharles IIIMale75Baby Boomers
Saint Kitts and NevisCharles IIIMale75Baby Boomers
Saint LuciaCharles IIIMale75Baby Boomers
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesCharles IIIMale75Baby Boomers
Solomon IslandsCharles IIIMale75Baby Boomers
TuvaluCharles IIIMale75Baby Boomers
United KingdomCharles IIIMale75Baby Boomers
PortugalMarcelo Rebelo de SousaMale75Baby Boomers
BarbadosDame Sandra MasonFemale74Baby Boomers
Sri LankaRanil WickremesingheMale74Baby Boomers
PakistanArif AlviMale74Baby Boomers
HaitiAriel HenryMale74Baby Boomers
East TimorJosé Ramos-HortaMale74Baby Boomers
BahrainSheikh Hamad bin Isa Al KhalifaMale73Baby Boomers
EthiopiaSahle-Work ZewdeFemale73Baby Boomers
MyanmarMyint SweMale72Baby Boomers
Marshall IslandsDavid KabuaMale72Baby Boomers
South SudanSalva Kiir MayarditMale72Baby Boomers
GeorgiaSalome ZourabichviliFemale71Baby Boomers
ThailandMaha VajiralongkornMale71Baby Boomers
TajikistanEmomali RahmonMale71Baby Boomers
RussiaVladimir PutinMale71Baby Boomers
South AfricaCyril RamaphhosaMale71Baby Boomers
PanamaLaurentino CortizoMale70Baby Boomers
CambodiaNorodom SihamoniMale70Baby Boomers
KazakhstanKassym-Jomart TokayevMale70Baby Boomers
ChinaXi JinpingMale70Baby Boomers
MexicoAndrés Manuel López ObradorMale70Baby Boomers
YemenRashad al-AlimiMale69Baby Boomers
TurkeyRecep Tayyip ErdoğanMale69Baby Boomers
AngolaJoão LourençoMale69Baby Boomers
SingaporeHalimah YacobFemale69Baby Boomers
BelarusAlexander LukashenkoMale69Baby Boomers
OmanHaitham bin TariqMale69Baby Boomers
EgyptAbdel Fattah el-SisiMale69Baby Boomers
MalawiLazarus ChakweraMale68Baby Boomers
LuxembourgHenriMale68Baby Boomers
LatviaEgils LevitsMale68Baby Boomers
EcuadorGuillermo LassoMale68Baby Boomers
LebanonNajib MikatiMale68Baby Boomers
SomaliaHassan Sheikh MohamudMale68Baby Boomers
GermanyFrank-Walter SteinmeierMale67Baby Boomers
GuatemalaAlejandro GiammatteiMale67Baby Boomers
GreeceKaterina SakellaropoulouFemale67Baby Boomers
MauritaniaMohamed Ould GhazouaniMale67Baby Boomers
Central African RepublicFaustin-Archange TouadéraMale66Baby Boomers
UzbekistanShavkat MirziyoyevMale66Baby Boomers
PhilippinesBongbong MarcosMale66Baby Boomers
RwandaPaul KagameMale66Baby Boomers
TunisiaKaïs SaïedMale65Baby Boomers
MonacoAlbert IIMale65Baby Boomers
EstoniaAlar KarisMale65Baby Boomers
BeninPatrice TalonMale65Baby Boomers
IndiaDroupadi MurmuFemale65Baby Boomers
Trinidad and TobagoPaula-Mae WeekesFemale65Baby Boomers
ComorosAzali AssoumaniMale64Baby Boomers
SurinameChan SantokhiMale64Baby Boomers
GabonAli Bongo OndimbaMale64Baby Boomers
MozambiqueFilipe NyusiMale64Baby Boomers
SeychellesWavel RamkalawanMale64Baby Boomers
ArgentinaAlberto FernándezMale64Baby Boomers
ArmeniaVahagn KhachaturyanMale64Baby Boomers
MauritiusPrithvirajsing RoopunMale64Baby Boomers
RomaniaKlaus IohannisMale64Baby Boomers
TongaTupou VIMale64Baby Boomers
São Tomé and PríncipeCarlos Vila NovaMale64Baby Boomers
MalaysiaAbdullah Sultan Ahmad ShahMale64Baby Boomers
HondurasXiomara CastroFemale64Baby Boomers
NigerMohamed BazoumMale63Baby Boomers
TanzaniaSamia Suluhu HassanFemale63Baby Boomers
JapanNaruhitoMale63Baby Boomers
Cabo VerdeJosé Maria NevesMale63Baby Boomers
BelgiumPhilippeMale63Baby Boomers
ColombiaGustavo PetroMale63Baby Boomers
CubaMiguel Díaz-CanelMale63Baby Boomers
SudanAbdel Fattah al-BurhanMale63Baby Boomers
KiribatiTaneti MaamauMale63Baby Boomers
IsraelIsaac HerzogMale63Baby Boomers
South KoreaYoon Suk-yeolMale63Baby Boomers
United Arab EmiratesSheikh Mohamed bin Zayed Al NahyanMale62Baby Boomers
AfghanistanHibatullah AkhundzadaMale62Baby Boomers
Costa RicaRodrigo Chaves RoblesMale62Baby Boomers
IndonesiaJoko WidodoMale62Baby Boomers
BotswanaMokgweetsi MasisiMale62Baby Boomers
CzechiaPetr PavelMale62Baby Boomers
SenegalMacky SallMale62Baby Boomers
AzerbaijanIlham AliyevMale62Baby Boomers
JordanAbdullah IIMale61Baby Boomers
MontenegroMilo ÐukanovicMale61Baby Boomers
MaldivesIbrahim Mohamed SolihMale61Baby Boomers
PeruDina BoluarteFemale61Baby Boomers
ZambiaHakainde HichilemaMale61Baby Boomers
VenezuelaNicolás MaduroMale61Baby Boomers
North MacedoniaStevo PendarovskiMale60Baby Boomers
Congo, Democratic Republic of theFélix TshisekediMale60Baby Boomers
BulgariaRumen RadevMale60Baby Boomers
LesothoLetsie IIIMale60Baby Boomers
MoroccoMohammed VIMale60Baby Boomers
BoliviaLuis ArceMale60Baby Boomers
MicronesiaDavid W. PanueloMale59Baby Boomers
FijiRatu Wiliame KatonivereMale59Baby Boomers
Sierra LeoneJulius Maada BioMale59Baby Boomers
VanuatuNikenike VurobaravuMale59Baby Boomers
LithuaniaGitanas NausedaMale59Baby Boomers
The GambiaAdama BarrowMale58Generation X
SyriaBashar al-AssadMale58Generation X
TogoFaure GnassingbéMale57Generation X
LiberiaGeorge WeahMale57Generation X
CroatiaZoran MilanovicMale57Generation X
KenyaWilliam RutoMale57Generation X
Bosnia and HerzegovinaŽeljka CvijanovicFemale56Generation X
AlbaniaBajram BegajMale56Generation X
NetherlandsWillem-AlexanderMale56Generation X
Dominican RepublicLuis AbinaderMale56Generation X
SpainFelipe VIMale55Generation X
EswatiniMswati IIIMale55Generation X
SloveniaNataša Pirc MusarFemale55Generation X
MongoliaUkhnaagiin KhürelsükhMale55Generation X
BurundiÉvariste NdayishimiyeMale55Generation X
IcelandGuðni Th. JóhannessonMale55Generation X
PalauSurangel Whipps Jr.Male55Generation X
KyrgyzstanSadyr JaparovMale55Generation X
SerbiaAleksandar VucicMale53Generation X
VietnamVõ Văn ThưởngMale53Generation X
ParaguayMario Abdo BenítezMale52Generation X
SwitzerlandAlain BersetMale51Generation X
PolandAndrzej DudaMale51Generation X
MoldovaMaia SanduFemale51Generation X
Guinea-BissauUmaro Sissoco EmbalóMale51Generation X
SlovakiaZuzana CaputováFemale50Generation X
UruguayLuis Lacalle PouMale50Generation X
CyprusNikos ChristodoulidesMale50Generation X
MadagascarAndry RajoelinaMale49Generation X
NauruRuss KunMale48Generation X
LibyaMohamed al-MenfiMale47Generation X
HungaryKatalin NovákFemale46Generation X
FranceEmmanuel MacronMale46Generation X
UkraineVolodymyr ZelenskyyMale45Generation X
BhutanJigme Khesar Namgyel WangchuckMale43Generation X
GuineaMamady DoumbouyaMale43Generation X
GuyanaIrfaan AliMale43Generation X
QatarSheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al ThaniMale43Generation X
El SalvadorNayib BukeleMale42Millennials
TurkmenistanSerdar BerdimuhamedowMale42Millennials
North KoreaKim Jong-unMale41Millennials
MaliAssimi GoïtaMale40Millennials
ChadMahamat DébyMale39Millennials
ChileGabriel BoricMale37Millennials
Burkina FasoIbrahim TraoréMale35Millennials

Though ages vary across countries and regions, Africa has both the oldest and youngest heads of state in the world today.

Last month, Cameroon’s president Paul Biya celebrated his 90th birthday, making him the oldest head of state in the world in a country that has a median population age of just 18.5 years. The African continent is home to about one-third of the world’s silent generation heads of states.

At the other age extreme, 35-year-old Ibrahim Traoré became the youngest head of state in Burkina Faso after a coup d’etat in September 2022.

Traoré is not the only millennial head of state out there. He is joined by others including Chile’s Gabriel Boric, and North Korea’s well-known Kim Jong-un.

Baby Boomers Lead the Way

Born between 1946 and 1964, the baby boomer generation dominates the world’s state leadership roles today.

Over 58% of the world’s heads of state are in this generation, including the UK’s King Charles III who is the head of state of 15 total nations.

Boomers also make up the largest share of women leaders in the top state positions today. While only around 10% of the world’s nations have women head of states, 65% of them are in this generation.

Included in this subset are heads of state such as Peru’s president Dina Boluarte, Honduras’ president Xiomara Castro, and India’s president Droupadi Murmu.

Where Gen X Takes the Lead

According to historical trends, one might expect to see an American president from Generation X in office sometime soon, but that has not yet materialized for various reasons.

However, this generation has made their mark in other parts of the world as heads of state, especially in Europe.

The presidents of Ukraine (Volodymyr Zelenskyy), France (Emmanuel Macron), and Hungary (Katalin Novák) are in Gen X, and are also Europe’s youngest heads of state.

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This article was published as a part of Visual Capitalist's Creator Program, which features data-driven visuals from some of our favorite Creators around the world.

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Demographics

Ranked: Countries Where Youth are the Most Unhappy, Relative to Older Generations

Conventional wisdom says that young adults (those below 30) tend to be the happiest demographic—but this is not true for these countries.

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Countries with the Biggest Happiness Gaps Between Generations

This was originally posted on our Voronoi app. Download the app for free on iOS or Android and discover incredible data-driven charts from a variety of trusted sources.

“They say a person needs just three things to be truly happy in this world: someone to love, something to do, and something to hope for.” — Tom Bodett

Measuring happiness is tricky business, more so when taking into account how different regions, cultures, and faiths define it. Nevertheless, the World Happiness Report attempts to distill being happy into a single score out of 10, and then ranks countries by their average score.

We’ve visualized the high-level findings from the latest happiness report in this series of maps. However, the report also dives deeper into other significant trends in the data, such as a growing disparity in happiness between age groups within countries themselves.

In the chart above, we list countries by the biggest gaps in happiness ranks between young adults (<30) and older adults (60+). A higher number indicates a larger gap, and that the youth are far unhappier than their older counterparts.

Where are Youth Unhappier than Older Adults?

Mauritius ranks first on this list, with a massive 57 place gap between older adult and youth happiness. The 1.26 million-inhabited island nation briefly reached high income status in 2020, but the pandemic hit hard, hurting its key tourism sector, and affecting jobs.

The country’s youth unemployment rate spiked to close to 25% that year, but has since been on the decline. Like residents on many similarly-populated islands, the younger demographic often moves abroad in search of more opportunities.

RankCountryYouth Happiness RankOlder Adult
Happiness Rank
Happiness Gap
1🇲🇺 Mauritius852857
2🇺🇸 U.S.621052
3🇨🇦 Canada58850
4🇺🇿 Uzbekistan712249
5🇨🇳 China793049
6🇯🇵 Japan733637
7🇲🇳 Mongolia865333
8🇩🇿 Algeria936231
9🇱🇾 Libya805030
10🇸🇬 Singapore542628
11🇰🇿 Kazakhstan694227
12🇵🇭 Philippines704327
13🇱🇦 Laos1047727
14🇩🇪 Germany472126
15🇪🇸 Spain552926
16🇲🇹 Malta573126
17🇧🇭 Bahrain775126
18🇰🇬 Kyrgyzstan815526
19🇲🇷 Mauritania1199326
20🇹🇩 Chad1209426

Conventional wisdom says, and data somewhat correlates, that young adults (those below 30) tend to be the happiest demographic. Happiness then decreases through middle age and starts increasing around 60. However, the above countries are digressing from the pattern, with older generations being much happier than young adults.

That older generations are happier, by itself, is not a bad thing. However, that younger adults are so much unhappier in the same country can point to several unique stresses that those aged below 30 are facing.

For example, in the U.S. and Canada—both near the top of this list—many young adults feel like they have been priced out of owning a home: a once key metric of success.

Climate anxieties are also high, with worries about the future of the world they’ll inhabit. Finally, persistent economic inequities are also weighing on the younger generation, with many in that cohort feeling like they will never be able to afford to retire.

All of this comes alongside a rising loneliness epidemic, where those aged 18–25 report much higher rates of loneliness than the general population.

Where does this data come from?

Source: The World Happiness Report which leverages data from the Gallup World Poll.

Methodology: A nationally representative group of approximately 1,000 people per country are asked to evaluate their life on a scale of 0–10. Scores are averaged across generations per country over three years. Countries are ranked by their scores out of 10.

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