Comparing the Cost of Living Around the World
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Comparing the Cost of Living Around the World

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This graphic compares the cost of living and purchasing power of 578 cities worldwide, using New York City as a benchmark for comparison.

Open the large interactive version here

This graphic compares the cost of living and purchasing power of 578 cities worldwide, using New York City as a benchmark for comparison.

Comparing The Cost of Living Around the World

The amount of money that’s needed to pay for day-to-day expenses like housing and food varies greatly from city to city. And some cities, like New York City, are known as especially expensive places to live.

So how do everyday expenses in New York City truly compare in costs to places like Beirut, Lebanon, or Bangalore, India?

This graphic by Victor Dépré (hypntic.data) uses 2022 data from Numbeo to compare the cost of living and purchasing power in 578 different cities around the world, using New York City as a benchmark for comparison.

The Cost of Living Index

Though New York City is widely recognized as one of the most expensive cities in the world, according to Numbeo—the world’s largest database of user-contributed data on cities and countries—there are a number of cities that are actually more expensive than the Big Apple.

Here’s a look at the comparative cost of living in 578 cities. For context, if a city has a cost of living index of 121, that means day-to-day expenses in it are 21% higher than New York’s, on average:

CityCountryCost of Living Index
HamiltonBermuda149.0
ZurichSwitzerland131.2
BaselSwitzerland130.9
ZugSwitzerland128.1
LuganoSwitzerland124.0
LausanneSwitzerland122.0
BeirutLebanon120.5
BernSwitzerland118.2
GenevaSwitzerland114.1
StavangerNorway104.6
Honolulu, HIUnited States103.7
OsloNorway102.3
BergenNorway100.4
New York, NYUnited States100.0
TrondheimNorway99.4
TromsoNorway99.0
ReykjavikIceland97.6
Saint HelierJersey96.5
Santa Barbara, CAUnited States95.0
Tel Aviv-YafoIsrael94.5
Berkeley, CAUnited States94.4
San Francisco, CAUnited States93.9
Oakland, CAUnited States92.9
Anchorage, AKUnited States91.2
Santa Clara, CAUnited States89.4
Petah TikvaIsrael88.9
BeershebaIsrael88.8
Seattle, WAUnited States88.5
CopenhagenDenmark88.3
ArhusDenmark88.2
HaifaIsrael87.4
JerusalemIsrael86.3
NassauBahamas86.0
LondonUnited Kingdom85.6
TokyoJapan85.6
Boston, MAUnited States85.5
NiceFrance84.6
ParisFrance84.4
Queens, NYUnited States84.0
SingaporeSingapore84.0
Washington, DCUnited States83.7
SydneyAustralia83.2
LuxembourgLuxembourg83.0
EspooFinland82.5
AalborgDenmark82.4
Pittsburgh, PAUnited States82.4
DarwinAustralia82.1
AmsterdamNetherlands80.8
Jersey City, NJUnited States80.8
Hong KongHong Kong80.7
BredaNetherlands80.6
Nanaimo, BCCanada80.3
AucklandNew Zealand80.2
HaarlemNetherlands79.8
UtrechtNetherlands79.8
BrightonUnited Kingdom79.6
BrisbaneAustralia79.4
Philadelphia, PAUnited States79.2
Los Angeles, CAUnited States79.2
Minneapolis, MNUnited States79.1
TurkuFinland79.1
DublinIreland79.1
StockholmSweden78.9
Birmingham, ALUnited States78.8
SeoulSouth Korea78.7
EindhovenNetherlands78.2
OdenseDenmark78.2
Miami, FLUnited States78.0
GroningenNetherlands77.9
Sacramento, CAUnited States77.9
NijmegenNetherlands77.8
MunichGermany77.5
GalwayIreland77.4
St. John's, Newfoundland and LabradorCanada77.4
InnsbruckAustria77.3
PerthAustralia77.3
Charleston, SCUnited States77.3
Asheville, NCUnited States77.3
LyonFrance77.2
LeidenNetherlands77.2
HelsinkiFinland77.2
Chicago, ILUnited States77.1
Fort Lauderdale, FLUnited States76.9
Portland, ORUnited States76.8
MelbourneAustralia76.8
OsakaJapan76.7
WellingtonNew Zealand76.7
VictoriaCanada76.7
VancouverCanada76.6
Atlanta, GAUnited States76.6
AdelaideAustralia76.6
LundSweden76.6
ToulouseFrance76.6
GuelphCanada76.4
RotterdamNetherlands76.2
Saint Paul, MNUnited States76.2
CorkIreland76.2
GuildfordUnited Kingdom76.0
Plano, TXUnited States75.9
CanberraAustralia75.9
Tampa, FLUnited States75.8
Gold CoastAustralia75.8
OxfordUnited Kingdom75.7
NagoyaJapan75.6
LincolnUnited Kingdom75.6
YorkUnited Kingdom75.5
San Diego, CAUnited States75.5
Cleveland, OHUnited States75.4
Omaha, NEUnited States75.3
LeuvenBelgium75.3
ReadingUnited Kingdom75.3
HamiltonNew Zealand75.2
Denver, COUnited States75.2
UppsalaSweden75.1
NewcastleAustralia75.0
HalifaxCanada74.9
MilanItaly74.8
SliemaMalta74.8
GrazAustria74.6
BrusselsBelgium74.4
Buffalo, NYUnited States74.3
TorontoCanada74.3
Colorado Springs, COUnited States74.3
Fremont, CAUnited States74.1
LimerickIreland74.1
Salem, ORUnited States74.0
The Hague (Den Haag)Netherlands73.9
HobartAustralia73.9
ChristchurchNew Zealand73.9
MalmoSweden73.8
San Jose, CAUnited States73.7
Nashville, TNUnited States73.6
EnschedeNetherlands73.6
Olympia, WAUnited States73.6
MaastrichtNetherlands73.6
Baltimore, MDUnited States73.6
New Orleans, LAUnited States73.6
LinzAustria73.6
CalgaryCanada73.4
EdinburghUnited Kingdom73.2
OttawaCanada73.2
Milton KeynesUnited Kingdom73.1
ManchesterUnited Kingdom73.1
MississaugaCanada73.1
CambridgeUnited Kingdom73.1
GothenburgSweden73.0
EdmontonCanada72.9
ParmaItaly72.8
GenoaItaly72.8
FrankfurtGermany72.8
Fort Collins, COUnited States72.8
GrenobleFrance72.7
BergamoItaly72.6
DerbyUnited Kingdom72.6
Iowa City, IAUnited States72.5
DelftNetherlands72.5
Syracuse, NYUnited States72.5
Everett, WAUnited States72.4
SaskatoonCanada72.3
HeidelbergGermany72.1
MarkhamCanada72.1
HamburgGermany72.0
Red DeerCanada71.7
SurreyCanada71.7
TriesteItaly71.7
Rochester, NYUnited States71.6
Milwaukee, WIUnited States71.6
Albany, NYUnited States71.5
LiverpoolUnited Kingdom71.4
NottinghamUnited Kingdom71.3
AntwerpBelgium71.3
BristolUnited Kingdom71.3
TampereFinland71.2
PortsmouthUnited Kingdom71.2
BonnGermany71.1
MarseilleFrance71.1
RomeItaly71.0
TaurangaNew Zealand70.9
FlorenceItaly70.8
PlymouthUnited Kingdom70.7
Detroit, MIUnited States70.7
Reno, NVUnited States70.7
OuluFinland70.6
MontrealCanada70.6
SalzburgAustria70.5
LondonCanada70.5
BramptonCanada70.4
Fort Worth, TXUnited States70.4
Durham, NCUnited States70.4
WinnipegCanada70.3
Ann Arbor, MIUnited States70.3
Greensboro, NCUnited States70.3
San JuanPuerto Rico70.1
Charlotte, NCUnited States70.1
NorwichUnited Kingdom70.1
GentBelgium70.0
ExeterUnited Kingdom69.9
DortmundGermany69.9
Long Beach, CAUnited States69.9
BolognaItaly69.8
North VancouverCanada69.8
KelownaCanada69.7
Columbus, OHUnited States69.7
BresciaItaly69.6
Eugene, ORUnited States69.6
MacaoMacao69.6
CologneGermany69.6
Jacksonville, FLUnited States69.5
ReginaCanada69.4
Phoenix, AZUnited States69.4
Des Moines, IAUnited States69.3
Quebec CityCanada69.0
Fresno, CAUnited States69.0
BerlinGermany68.9
CardiffUnited Kingdom68.9
WindsorCanada68.9
GlasgowUnited Kingdom68.8
KitchenerCanada68.7
Vancouver, WAUnited States68.6
KingstonCanada68.6
AugsburgGermany68.5
StuttgartGermany68.4
ViennaAustria68.4
MannheimGermany68.4
Las Vegas, NVUnited States68.3
Boise, IDUnited States68.3
DusseldorfGermany68.3
Raleigh, NCUnited States68.2
PisaItaly68.2
Spokane, WAUnited States68.1
Orlando, FLUnited States68.1
Dayton, OHUnited States68.0
VeronaItaly68.0
Dallas, TXUnited States67.9
Richmond, VAUnited States67.8
Louisville, KYUnited States67.7
SouthamptonUnited Kingdom67.6
LeedsUnited Kingdom67.6
TrevisoItaly67.5
Madison, WIUnited States67.3
BirminghamUnited Kingdom67.3
Indianapolis, INUnited States67.1
HanoverGermany67.0
NurembergGermany67.0
HamiltonCanada67.0
CoventryUnited Kingdom66.9
Newcastle upon TyneUnited Kingdom66.9
Saint Louis, MOUnited States66.8
UlmGermany66.7
Stoke-on-TrentUnited Kingdom66.6
Austin, TXUnited States66.5
DundeeUnited Kingdom66.5
SaarbruckenGermany66.3
Kansas City, MOUnited States66.1
CagliariItaly66.1
KarlsruheGermany65.9
SheffieldUnited Kingdom65.9
TaipeiTaiwan65.8
BelfastUnited Kingdom65.7
Chattanooga, TNUnited States65.7
DarmstadtGermany65.5
LimassolCyprus65.3
TurinItaly65.2
St.CatharinesCanada65.2
BestNetherlands65.1
Toledo, OHUnited States65.0
Salt Lake City, UTUnited States65.0
Oklahoma City, OKUnited States64.9
PadovaItaly64.9
LeicesterUnited Kingdom64.9
Freiburg im BreisgauGermany64.7
ErlangenGermany64.5
NicosiaCyprus64.5
Cincinnati, OHUnited States64.4
Tucson, AZUnited States64.3
DubaiUnited Arab Emirates64.3
Houston, TXUnited States63.9
BilbaoSpain63.8
BournemouthUnited Kingdom63.7
Mesa, AZUnited States63.7
EssenGermany63.6
Albuquerque, NMUnited States63.4
AberdeenUnited Kingdom63.4
Lexington, KYUnited States62.9
DohaQatar62.9
LeipzigGermany62.8
San Antonio, TXUnited States62.6
BariItaly62.6
DresdenGermany62.5
Tulsa, OKUnited States62.4
NaplesItaly62.4
Memphis, TNUnited States62.3
BremenGermany62.2
Akron, OHUnited States62.2
Kingston upon HullUnited Kingdom62.1
AachenGermany61.8
KaohsiungTaiwan61.4
RegensburgGermany61.4
BarcelonaSpain61.2
Little Rock, ARUnited States59.3
Port of SpainTrinidad And Tobago59.2
MadridSpain59.0
Palma de MallorcaSpain59.0
AthensGreece59.0
Wichita, KSUnited States58.9
PatrasGreece58.7
ThessalonikiGreece58.4
PalermoItaly58.0
Abu DhabiUnited Arab Emirates57.9
LarnacaCyprus57.4
CataniaItaly57.4
MaleMaldives57.3
LjubljanaSlovenia57.2
HeraklionGreece57.1
El Paso, TXUnited States55.9
HavanaCuba55.9
TallinnEstonia55.8
Zaragoza (Saragossa)Spain54.8
Panama CityPanama54.5
ManamaBahrain54.3
ShanghaiChina53.9
RiyadhSaudi Arabia53.9
TartuEstonia53.8
VigoSpain53.4
Seville (Sevilla)Spain53.3
ValenciaSpain53.0
PaphosCyprus52.9
MakatiPhilippines52.7
AjmanUnited Arab Emirates52.6
Jeddah (Jiddah)Saudi Arabia52.6
MalagaSpain52.5
AmmanJordan52.2
GranadaSpain52.0
MontevideoUruguay52.0
PragueCzech Republic51.8
MurciaSpain51.7
LisbonPortugal51.7
MariborSlovenia51.6
SplitCroatia51.6
KingstonJamaica51.6
RigaLatvia51.5
AlicanteSpain51.5
MuscatOman51.2
ShenzhenChina51.1
Santa Cruz de TenerifeSpain50.9
DakarSenegal50.9
CascaisPortugal50.9
Las Palmas de Gran CanariaSpain50.5
Addis AbabaEthiopia50.5
BangkokThailand50.4
RijekaCroatia50.1
Phnom PenhCambodia50.1
ZagrebCroatia49.9
BeijingChina49.5
BratislavaSlovakia49.4
PortoPortugal49.4
BrnoCzech Republic49.3
HangzhouChina49.2
ParamariboSuriname49.2
FunchalPortugal49.2
SharjahUnited Arab Emirates49.0
Ad DammamSaudi Arabia48.5
OlomoucCzech Republic48.2
KosiceSlovakia48.2
Kuwait CityKuwait48.0
San JoseCosta Rica47.7
CoimbraPortugal47.4
AbidjanIvory Coast47.1
BragaPortugal47.0
VilniusLithuania46.9
OstravaCzech Republic46.5
AveiroPortugal46.5
BudapestHungary46.1
SuzhouChina45.9
HarareZimbabwe45.7
LeiriaPortugal45.7
SantiagoChile45.6
San SalvadorEl Salvador45.3
CaracasVenezuela45.3
JohannesburgSouth Africa44.9
KaunasLithuania44.7
Santo DomingoDominican Republic44.7
Guatemala CityGuatemala44.6
PhuketThailand44.3
WarsawPoland43.9
ChengduChina43.8
OsijekCroatia43.6
Quezon CityPhilippines43.3
GdyniaPoland42.9
BaliIndonesia42.9
PretoriaSouth Africa42.8
GaboroneBotswana42.7
NanjingChina42.3
SofiaBulgaria42.2
Chiang MaiThailand42.2
MoscowRussia42.2
PattayaThailand42.1
GdanskPoland41.3
Krakow (Cracow)Poland41.3
WroclawPoland41.1
GuangzhouChina41.1
Cape TownSouth Africa41.0
JakartaIndonesia40.9
PecsHungary40.8
ManilaPhilippines40.8
PoznanPoland40.7
QuitoEcuador40.5
DurbanSouth Africa40.3
KatowicePoland40.3
Cluj-NapocaRomania40.2
BucharestRomania40.1
SzegedHungary40.1
BelgradeSerbia40.1
DebrecenHungary40.0
Petaling JayaMalaysia40.0
MarrakechMorocco39.9
PodgoricaMontenegro39.3
SzczecinPoland39.3
Kota KinabaluMalaysia39.3
Kuala LumpurMalaysia39.3
VarnaBulgaria39.1
SuvaFiji39.0
CebuPhilippines39.0
Ho Chi Minh CityVietnam39.0
CancunMexico38.9
AccraGhana38.7
TiranaAlbania38.7
GuayaquilEcuador38.6
MonterreyMexico38.5
PlovdivBulgaria38.4
SarajevoBosnia And Herzegovina38.4
LublinPoland38.0
Erbil (Irbil)Iraq38.0
Santa CruzBolivia38.0
Isfahan (Esfahan)Iran38.0
LodzPoland37.9
Saint PetersburgRussia37.8
Banja LukaBosnia And Herzegovina37.6
PenangMalaysia37.6
La PazBolivia37.5
Sao PauloBrazil37.5
Novi SadSerbia37.4
Mexico CityMexico37.4
LagosNigeria37.3
ConstantaRomania37.3
IasiRomania37.1
HanoiVietnam36.9
TangierMorocco36.9
BrasiliaBrazil36.8
BurgasBulgaria36.8
BaguioPhilippines36.7
Rio de JaneiroBrazil36.7
BrasovRomania36.6
CasablancaMorocco36.6
DamascusSyria36.4
SibiuRomania36.2
TimisoaraRomania36.2
KampalaUganda36.0
NairobiKenya35.9
MeridaMexico35.7
RabatMorocco35.7
Qingdao, ShandongChina35.5
QueretaroMexico35.4
BandungIndonesia35.4
OradeaRomania35.4
Buenos AiresArgentina35.3
DhakaBangladesh35.1
SkopjeNorth Macedonia34.9
UlaanbaatarMongolia34.9
CraiovaRomania34.9
AgadirMorocco34.8
BaghdadIraq34.8
SurabayaIndonesia34.7
LimaPeru34.6
AradRomania34.5
FlorianopolisBrazil34.4
CuencaEcuador34.2
Kiev (Kyiv)Ukraine34.1
GurgaonIndia34.1
GuadalajaraMexico34.1
KazanRussia34.0
YerevanArmenia34.0
Dar es SalaamTanzania34.0
Nizhny NovgorodRussia33.9
ColomboSri Lanka33.6
LusakaZambia33.6
NisSerbia33.4
YekaterinburgRussia33.2
MinskBelarus32.8
KrasnodarRussia32.7
MashhadIran32.5
Belo HorizonteBrazil32.5
CairoEgypt32.4
Porto AlegreBrazil32.3
KigaliRwanda32.3
NovosibirskRussia32.3
Rostov-na-donuRussia32.1
Odessa (Odesa)Ukraine31.9
ChisinauMoldova31.8
CuritibaBrazil31.8
BakuAzerbaijan31.6
TehranIran31.5
IstanbulTurkey31.1
TbilisiGeorgia31.0
YogyakartaIndonesia30.8
AsuncionParaguay30.6
KharkivUkraine30.5
Astana (Nur-Sultan)Kazakhstan30.3
ChandigarhIndia30.3
AlmatyKazakhstan30.2
TunisTunisia29.9
KathmanduNepal29.9
AlgiersAlgeria29.8
LvivUkraine29.7
TashkentUzbekistan29.4
MumbaiIndia29.3
DniproUkraine29.3
NoidaIndia29.2
MedellinColombia28.8
AlexandriaEgypt28.4
BarranquillaColombia28.4
Navi MumbaiIndia28.4
IzmirTurkey28.4
DelhiIndia28.2
BangaloreIndia28.2
BogotaColombia27.9
GoaIndia27.7
PuneIndia27.6
GhaziabadIndia27.6
ThaneIndia27.5
RanchiIndia27.3
AnkaraTurkey27.2
HyderabadIndia26.6
FaridabadIndia26.6
BishkekKyrgyzstan26.6
PristinaKosovo (Disputed Territory)26.2
ChennaiIndia26.1
AhmedabadIndia26.0
KolkataIndia26.0
CaliColombia25.8
GuwahatiIndia25.6
Lucknow (Lakhnau)India25.4
MaduraiIndia25.4
SuratIndia25.3
VadodaraIndia25.3
VijayawadaIndia25.0
LudhianaIndia24.9
Cyberjaya, SelangorMalaysia24.9
RaipurIndia24.8
DehradunIndia24.8
NashikIndia24.6
IndoreIndia24.5
RajkotIndia24.5
NagpurIndia24.4
ErnakulamIndia24.0
VisakhapatnamIndia24.0
JaipurIndia24.0
PatnaIndia24.0
MangaloreIndia23.7
BucaramangaColombia23.7
CoimbatoreIndia23.5
BhopalIndia23.4
BhubaneswarIndia23.3
MysoreIndia23.2
KochiIndia22.9
AgraIndia22.8
JammuIndia22.0
ThiruvananthapuramIndia21.8
Kozhikode (Calicut)India21.6
LahorePakistan21.5
IslamabadPakistan21.5
KabulAfghanistan21.4
ThrissurIndia21.3
KanpurIndia20.8
KarachiPakistan20.8
RawalpindiPakistan20.5
MultanPakistan18.7
PeshawarPakistan18.6

Bermuda’s capital city Hamilton ranks first on the list, with a cost of living that’s nearly 50% higher than New York’s.

Why is Hamilton so expensive? One reason is that nearly everything needs to be imported onto the tiny British archipelago—things like gas, groceries, and clothes—so it’s likely that prices in the territory are steep as a result.

Second on the list is Zurich, Switzerland, where expenses are roughly 30% higher than New York City. Food and beverages are particularly expensive in the region—according to the dataset, groceries are 58% more expensive than groceries in NYC, and restaurant prices are 55% higher.

However, it’s worth noting that while Zurich ranks high on the cost of living index, the city’s purchasing power is also strong, which we will dive into in the next section.

The Local Purchasing Power Index

Purchasing power is a metric that’s used to gauge the number of goods and services someone on an average salary can buy in that specific city.

Taking a look again at Zurich, consumers in the city have about 30% more purchasing power than New York City residents on average, despite having higher costs.

CityCountryLocal Purchasing Power Index
Houston, TXUnited States173.0
Dallas, TXUnited States170.7
Ann Arbor, MIUnited States160.0
Austin, TXUnited States158.2
Fremont, CAUnited States157.4
San Jose, CAUnited States157.4
Jersey City, NJUnited States155.9
Santa Clara, CAUnited States155.4
Columbus, OHUnited States151.3
Seattle, WAUnited States145.4
Charlotte, NCUnited States144.9
Jacksonville, FLUnited States144.3
Raleigh, NCUnited States144.1
ZugSwitzerland143.4
Salt Lake City, UTUnited States140.6
San Antonio, TXUnited States137.7
Colorado Springs, COUnited States137.6
Baltimore, MDUnited States136.1
Phoenix, AZUnited States135.9
Chicago, ILUnited States135.3
San Francisco, CAUnited States133.2
Madison, WIUnited States132.1
Tulsa, OKUnited States132.1
ErlangenGermany131.8
Little Rock, ARUnited States131.1
Richmond, VAUnited States130.9
Atlanta, GAUnited States130.7
Denver, COUnited States130.0
ZurichSwitzerland129.8
Albany, NYUnited States129.8
Cyberjaya, SelangorMalaysia128.5
Oklahoma City, OKUnited States128.0
San Diego, CAUnited States127.9
Kansas City, MOUnited States127.2
LausanneSwitzerland127.0
Los Angeles, CAUnited States126.1
Vancouver, WAUnited States126.1
Cleveland, OHUnited States125.3
Cincinnati, OHUnited States125.2
Las Vegas, NVUnited States124.8
Buffalo, NYUnited States124.4
Red DeerCanada123.9
Orlando, FLUnited States123.3
HamiltonNew Zealand123.2
Saint Louis, MOUnited States123.2
Albuquerque, NMUnited States122.4
Washington, DCUnited States121.8
Indianapolis, INUnited States121.5
Charleston, SCUnited States121.3
GenevaSwitzerland120.6
DerbyUnited Kingdom119.8
Wichita, KSUnited States119.2
NewcastleAustralia118.9
El Paso, TXUnited States118.8
Anchorage, AKUnited States118.6
AachenGermany116.5
Fresno, CAUnited States116.4
Boston, MAUnited States115.7
NurembergGermany115.7
Philadelphia, PAUnited States115.6
Pittsburgh, PAUnited States115.5
Minneapolis, MNUnited States114.7
CalgaryCanada114.2
Fort Worth, TXUnited States112.6
BernSwitzerland112.5
Spokane, WAUnited States112.4
LuganoSwitzerland112.0
Oakland, CAUnited States111.7
BaselSwitzerland111.5
Nashville, TNUnited States111.5
Detroit, MIUnited States110.1
North VancouverCanada110.1
PerthAustralia110.0
Long Beach, CAUnited States110.0
DusseldorfGermany110.0
Memphis, TNUnited States110.0
Louisville, KYUnited States109.7
EdmontonCanada109.5
DarwinAustralia109.4
Milwaukee, WIUnited States109.2
DresdenGermany109.1
StuttgartGermany109.0
Olympia, WAUnited States108.8
MarkhamCanada108.7
CoventryUnited Kingdom108.7
DarmstadtGermany108.5
Des Moines, IAUnited States108.4
Portland, ORUnited States108.1
UlmGermany107.4
FrankfurtGermany106.9
Saint Paul, MNUnited States106.6
CardiffUnited Kingdom106.2
Omaha, NEUnited States106.0
BerlinGermany105.9
Queens, NYUnited States105.7
DortmundGermany105.6
Plano, TXUnited States105.4
CanberraAustralia105.1
LundSweden104.9
Durham, NCUnited States104.8
SydneyAustralia104.5
AdelaideAustralia104.2
OxfordUnited Kingdom104.0
ReginaCanada104.0
BrisbaneAustralia103.8
BramptonCanada103.5
Mesa, AZUnited States103.4
RegensburgGermany103.3
KarlsruheGermany103.0
Akron, OHUnited States102.9
BangaloreIndia102.6
Lexington, KYUnited States102.4
MelbourneAustralia102.2
HeidelbergGermany102.2
AberdeenUnited Kingdom102.0
Everett, WAUnited States101.8
HobartAustralia101.6
WinnipegCanada101.6
Sacramento, CAUnited States101.4
Fort Lauderdale, FLUnited States101.3
TorontoCanada101.3
Gold CoastAustralia101.2
GothenburgSweden101.2
HamburgGermany101.1
OuluFinland101.1
DubaiUnited Arab Emirates101.1
AalborgDenmark100.9
ReadingUnited Kingdom100.9
LondonCanada100.4
Fort Collins, COUnited States100.3
LuxembourgLuxembourg100.2
Rochester, NYUnited States100.1
New York, NYUnited States100.0
MississaugaCanada99.7
SouthamptonUnited Kingdom98.4
Tampa, FLUnited States98.3
SurreyCanada98.1
Stoke-on-TrentUnited Kingdom97.9
Newcastle upon TyneUnited Kingdom97.7
BestNetherlands97.2
Reno, NVUnited States96.9
TurkuFinland96.8
LimerickIreland96.5
GlasgowUnited Kingdom96.4
BonnGermany95.7
HanoverGermany95.6
ArhusDenmark95.5
StockholmSweden95.4
MarseilleFrance95.3
MunichGermany95.2
MannheimGermany95.1
OdenseDenmark94.8
AmsterdamNetherlands94.5
Freiburg im BreisgauGermany94.5
OttawaCanada94.3
Asheville, NCUnited States94.2
Santa Barbara, CAUnited States93.9
ExeterUnited Kingdom93.9
EnschedeNetherlands93.8
Miami, FLUnited States93.7
Ad DammamSaudi Arabia93.6
New Orleans, LAUnited States92.9
CambridgeUnited Kingdom92.9
Greensboro, NCUnited States92.7
RiyadhSaudi Arabia92.7
LeicesterUnited Kingdom92.6
DelftNetherlands91.7
Chattanooga, TNUnited States91.7
NottinghamUnited Kingdom91.6
BelfastUnited Kingdom91.6
RotterdamNetherlands91.4
TampereFinland91.4
SingaporeSingapore91.3
ManchesterUnited Kingdom91.3
CopenhagenDenmark90.7
Toledo, OHUnited States90.5
EspooFinland90.3
AntwerpBelgium90.3
ChristchurchNew Zealand90.2
ToulouseFrance90.1
LiverpoolUnited Kingdom90.1
MontrealCanada89.9
DohaQatar89.9
TromsoNorway89.5
Honolulu, HIUnited States89.2
Salem, ORUnited States89.2
VictoriaCanada89.1
CologneGermany89.1
SheffieldUnited Kingdom89.1
LincolnUnited Kingdom89.0
LondonUnited Kingdom88.8
TokyoJapan88.6
The Hague (Den Haag)Netherlands88.5
LeedsUnited Kingdom88.5
SaskatoonCanada88.2
Eugene, ORUnited States88.2
TrondheimNorway88.0
EdinburghUnited Kingdom88.0
HalifaxCanada87.9
VancouverCanada87.7
PretoriaSouth Africa87.3
Quebec CityCanada87.2
BergenNorway87.0
BrusselsBelgium87.0
EindhovenNetherlands86.9
Kingston upon HullUnited Kingdom86.6
NijmegenNetherlands86.5
MaastrichtNetherlands86.5
MuscatOman86.5
HamiltonCanada86.4
StavangerNorway85.9
Berkeley, CAUnited States85.8
WellingtonNew Zealand85.5
SaarbruckenGermany85.4
OsloNorway85.2
Iowa City, IAUnited States85.0
PortsmouthUnited Kingdom85.0
Birmingham, ALUnited States84.9
MalmoSweden84.9
BristolUnited Kingdom84.8
CorkIreland84.5
TaurangaNew Zealand84.4
BredaNetherlands84.3
PlymouthUnited Kingdom84.0
UppsalaSweden83.9
Tucson, AZUnited States83.7
LeuvenBelgium83.6
HelsinkiFinland83.5
LyonFrance82.7
Boise, IDUnited States82.6
DundeeUnited Kingdom82.4
EssenGermany81.9
DublinIreland81.8
BirminghamUnited Kingdom81.8
OsakaJapan81.6
GrenobleFrance81.6
GranadaSpain81.6
Saint HelierJersey80.4
ParisFrance80.2
BeershebaIsrael80.1
AugsburgGermany79.9
AlicanteSpain79.9
LeipzigGermany79.8
NorwichUnited Kingdom79.7
JerusalemIsrael79.6
GuelphCanada79.6
ViennaAustria79.6
HamiltonBermuda79.4
AucklandNew Zealand79.2
Dayton, OHUnited States79.2
GrazAustria79.0
GuildfordUnited Kingdom78.8
Navi MumbaiIndia78.7
MurciaSpain78.5
LinzAustria78.4
Syracuse, NYUnited States78.4
GroningenNetherlands78.3
UtrechtNetherlands77.9
SalzburgAustria77.8
HaifaIsrael77.6
KelownaCanada77.5
GentBelgium77.4
LeidenNetherlands77.2
HaarlemNetherlands77.1
BremenGermany77.1
BournemouthUnited Kingdom76.5
Jeddah (Jiddah)Saudi Arabia76.1
Cape TownSouth Africa75.8
KingstonCanada75.4
Abu DhabiUnited Arab Emirates75.2
VigoSpain75.0
GurgaonIndia74.9
ReykjavikIceland74.8
BrightonUnited Kingdom74.8
MadridSpain74.8
SeoulSouth Korea74.5
Qingdao, ShandongChina74.0
Milton KeynesUnited Kingdom73.9
KitchenerCanada73.9
DurbanSouth Africa73.9
ThiruvananthapuramIndia73.7
YorkUnited Kingdom73.5
Petah TikvaIsrael72.9
NanjingChina72.9
JohannesburgSouth Africa72.2
PragueCzech Republic72.0
GalwayIreland71.9
St.CatharinesCanada71.2
Seville (Sevilla)Spain71.0
BarcelonaSpain70.8
Tel Aviv-YafoIsrael70.2
GuangzhouChina70.1
ValenciaSpain70.0
Zaragoza (Saragossa)Spain69.3
BresciaItaly69.1
ShenzhenChina69.0
Kuwait CityKuwait68.8
InnsbruckAustria68.0
MariborSlovenia68.0
MacaoMacao67.3
TurinItaly67.2
Krakow (Cracow)Poland67.1
San JuanPuerto Rico66.7
PadovaItaly66.6
ThaneIndia66.1
WarsawPoland66.0
PenangMalaysia65.9
MalagaSpain65.8
Hong KongHong Kong65.7
BilbaoSpain65.5
OstravaCzech Republic65.2
BrnoCzech Republic65.1
BariItaly65.0
HangzhouChina65.0
TallinnEstonia64.9
KaunasLithuania64.9
GdanskPoland64.4
NiceFrance64.2
KatowicePoland64.0
Kuala LumpurMalaysia64.0
Santa Cruz de TenerifeSpain63.8
BergamoItaly63.3
Palma de MallorcaSpain63.2
RaipurIndia63.2
VeronaItaly63.1
TriesteItaly63.0
St. John's, Newfoundland and LabradorCanada62.8
ManamaBahrain62.6
BratislavaSlovakia62.6
NoidaIndia62.6
VilniusLithuania62.1
TrevisoItaly62.0
OlomoucCzech Republic61.3
PaphosCyprus61.2
Petaling JayaMalaysia60.9
ParmaItaly60.7
TartuEstonia60.5
DelhiIndia60.4
NicosiaCyprus60.3
LjubljanaSlovenia60.2
LublinPoland60.2
WroclawPoland59.9
KochiIndia59.5
TaipeiTaiwan59.3
BolognaItaly58.9
PalermoItaly58.9
SuzhouChina58.8
JammuIndia58.4
PoznanPoland58.3
WindsorCanada58.0
LodzPoland57.8
YekaterinburgRussia57.8
CagliariItaly57.7
Nanaimo, BCCanada57.5
NagoyaJapan57.4
Las Palmas de Gran CanariaSpain56.7
SharjahUnited Arab Emirates56.7
OsijekCroatia56.4
NaplesItaly56.2
ChengduChina56.0
LimassolCyprus55.8
KaohsiungTaiwan55.5
LarnacaCyprus55.3
SofiaBulgaria55.3
ZagrebCroatia55.1
CataniaItaly54.6
GhaziabadIndia54.6
ThrissurIndia54.4
TimisoaraRomania54.3
BhubaneswarIndia54.2
MilanItaly54.0
PuneIndia53.7
FlorenceItaly53.4
BucharestRomania53.2
BeijingChina53.1
Cluj-NapocaRomania53.1
ShanghaiChina53.0
CoimbraPortugal53.0
CraiovaRomania52.9
RigaLatvia52.8
BudapestHungary52.7
PisaItaly52.1
GenoaItaly51.6
JaipurIndia51.5
GaboroneBotswana51.4
RomeItaly51.3
KosiceSlovakia51.2
HyderabadIndia51.2
SzczecinPoland51.1
FaridabadIndia51.1
QueretaroMexico51.0
AradRomania51.0
GdyniaPoland50.6
Kozhikode (Calicut)India50.0
DebrecenHungary49.9
LeiriaPortugal49.7
MoscowRussia49.6
SzegedHungary49.5
OradeaRomania49.5
AjmanUnited Arab Emirates48.3
LisbonPortugal48.3
SibiuRomania48.3
Kiev (Kyiv)Ukraine48.2
Lucknow (Lakhnau)India48.2
SliemaMalta48.0
MumbaiIndia48.0
MangaloreIndia47.9
PristinaKosovo (Disputed Territory)47.5
PecsHungary47.2
NassauBahamas46.7
FunchalPortugal46.5
ChandigarhIndia46.5
ErnakulamIndia46.5
MysoreIndia46.5
BragaPortugal46.3
VarnaBulgaria46.3
ChennaiIndia46.3
VadodaraIndia46.1
BhopalIndia45.8
PlovdivBulgaria45.6
ConstantaRomania45.4
PortoPortugal44.9
RajkotIndia44.8
SuvaFiji44.7
BrasovRomania44.7
KolkataIndia44.7
IasiRomania44.1
AveiroPortugal43.9
SarajevoBosnia And Herzegovina43.7
RijekaCroatia43.6
BrasiliaBrazil43.5
MonterreyMexico43.0
San JoseCosta Rica42.9
Novi SadSerbia42.7
VisakhapatnamIndia42.7
SplitCroatia42.5
NagpurIndia42.5
BurgasBulgaria42.4
SuratIndia42.0
CascaisPortugal41.2
Astana (Nur-Sultan)Kazakhstan41.0
Saint PetersburgRussia40.8
Port of SpainTrinidad And Tobago40.7
CoimbatoreIndia40.7
NisSerbia40.4
DehradunIndia40.4
AthensGreece40.0
IndoreIndia40.0
Erbil (Irbil)Iraq39.9
GuwahatiIndia39.6
Kota KinabaluMalaysia39.4
AnkaraTurkey39.1
AhmedabadIndia39.1
BaghdadIraq39.0
KanpurIndia38.8
RanchiIndia38.6
NovosibirskRussia38.4
Banja LukaBosnia And Herzegovina38.3
LvivUkraine38.3
CancunMexico38.2
ThessalonikiGreece37.9
LusakaZambia37.5
PatrasGreece37.4
VijayawadaIndia37.2
SkopjeNorth Macedonia37.0
Rostov-na-donuRussia36.9
PatnaIndia36.8
Mexico CityMexico36.7
KrasnodarRussia36.6
GoaIndia36.3
BelgradeSerbia36.1
HeraklionGreece36.0
PodgoricaMontenegro36.0
GuadalajaraMexico36.0
LudhianaIndia35.8
NashikIndia35.3
IzmirTurkey35.2
Nizhny NovgorodRussia35.0
RabatMorocco34.7
La PazBolivia34.6
ChisinauMoldova34.4
CasablancaMorocco34.1
KharkivUkraine34.0
AlmatyKazakhstan33.6
MeridaMexico33.5
KazanRussia33.5
TangierMorocco33.2
Santa CruzBolivia32.9
MedellinColombia32.8
MaduraiIndia32.8
Odessa (Odesa)Ukraine32.7
DniproUkraine32.7
Panama CityPanama32.3
CuritibaBrazil32.3
SantiagoChile32.1
GuayaquilEcuador31.4
AgadirMorocco31.4
TiranaAlbania31.2
MinskBelarus31.2
Porto AlegreBrazil31.2
CaliColombia31.1
Ho Chi Minh CityVietnam30.9
MontevideoUruguay30.8
CuencaEcuador30.8
HanoiVietnam30.7
BucaramangaColombia30.4
MarrakechMorocco30.0
Chiang MaiThailand29.9
BangkokThailand29.8
QuitoEcuador29.7
YerevanArmenia29.7
AmmanJordan29.5
TbilisiGeorgia29.5
IslamabadPakistan29.5
FlorianopolisBrazil29.3
Sao PauloBrazil29.2
NairobiKenya29.2
KarachiPakistan29.2
LimaPeru28.9
IstanbulTurkey28.7
MaleMaldives28.5
BakuAzerbaijan28.0
AgraIndia27.9
AsuncionParaguay27.4
PhuketThailand27.3
BarranquillaColombia27.0
Buenos AiresArgentina26.9
KigaliRwanda26.4
KingstonJamaica26.1
BogotaColombia26.1
PeshawarPakistan26.0
JakartaIndonesia25.3
MultanPakistan25.1
UlaanbaatarMongolia25.0
Guatemala CityGuatemala24.4
CairoEgypt24.4
LahorePakistan24.4
TunisTunisia24.2
DhakaBangladesh23.8
SurabayaIndonesia23.6
PattayaThailand23.3
KathmanduNepal23.2
DakarSenegal23.1
BishkekKyrgyzstan23.1
RawalpindiPakistan22.9
Isfahan (Esfahan)Iran22.8
KabulAfghanistan22.8
MashhadIran22.7
TashkentUzbekistan22.6
Santo DomingoDominican Republic22.2
ManilaPhilippines22.2
San SalvadorEl Salvador21.8
BandungIndonesia21.8
AlgiersAlgeria21.8
AccraGhana21.1
Belo HorizonteBrazil21.0
MakatiPhilippines20.6
AlexandriaEgypt20.3
Quezon CityPhilippines19.7
Rio de JaneiroBrazil18.9
BaguioPhilippines18.7
ColomboSri Lanka18.6
HarareZimbabwe17.6
CebuPhilippines17.6
ParamariboSuriname16.4
CaracasVenezuela15.9
BeirutLebanon15.4
Phnom PenhCambodia14.8
TehranIran14.6
BaliIndonesia14.1
Dar es SalaamTanzania13.5
YogyakartaIndonesia12.2
Addis AbabaEthiopia9.8
KampalaUganda9.8
LagosNigeria8.3
AbidjanIvory Coast6.3
DamascusSyria5.0
HavanaCuba1.6

In contrast, the average consumer in Hamilton, Bermuda has a relatively low purchasing power. Based on the average net salary in the city, consumers can afford about 30% less than people in New York City.

Inflation Continues to Drive Prices Up

Amidst rising inflation and increased prices for consumer goods, cost of living has become top of mind for many people around the world.

Since late 2021, the world has been experiencing a cost of living crisis, largely because of pent-up demand following the COVID-19 pandemic, coupled with supply chain issues and the Russia-Ukraine conflict.

But according to UBS Chief Economist Paul Donovan, we’ve likely seen the worst of it, and inflation is likely to decrease across the globe in the second half of the year.

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This article was published as a part of Visual Capitalist's Creator Program, which features data-driven visuals from some of our favorite Creators around the world.

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Politics

Mapped: Which Countries Still Have a Monarchy?

Beyond the 15 nations under the British monarchy, 28 other countries still have a ruling monarch. Here’s a look at the world’s monarchies.

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monarchies

Mapped: Which Countries Still Have a Monarchy?

In the wake of Queen Elizabeth II’s death, the question of monarchy is brought sharply into focus.

However, a surprising number of countries have ruling monarchs, and in this visual we break down the kinds of royal leadership across the 43 countries that still have them.

Types of Monarchies

A monarch in the simplest sense is a country’s king, queen, emir, or sultan, and so on. But before diving in, it’s important to break down the distinctions between the types of monarchies that exist today. Generally, there are four kinds:

① Constitutional Monarchy

The monarch divides power with a constitutionally founded government. In this situation, the monarch, while having ceremonial duties and certain responsibilities, does not have any political power. For example, the UK’s monarch must sign all laws to make them official, but has no power to change or reject new laws.

Here are some examples of countries with constitutional monarchies:

🇯🇵  Japan
🇬🇧  United Kingdom
🇩🇰  Denmark

② Absolute Monarchy

The monarch has full and absolute political power. They can amend, reject, or create laws, represent the country’s interests abroad, appoint political leaders, and so on.

Here are some examples of countries with absolute monarchies:

🇸🇿  Eswatini
🇸🇦  Saudi Arabia
🇻🇦  Vatican City

③ Federal Monarchy

The monarch serves an overall figurehead of the federation of states which have their own governments, or even monarchies, ruling them.

Here are some examples of countries with federal monarchies:

🇦🇪  UAE
🇲🇾  Malaysia

Malaysia is a unique form of federal monarchy. Every five years, each state’s royal leaders choose amongst themselves who will be the monarch, or the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, of Malaysia and the respective states. Furthermore, the monarchy is also constitutional, allowing a democratically elected body to govern.

④ Mixed Monarchy

This is a situation wherein an absolute monarch may divide powers in distinct ways specific to the country.

Here are some examples of countries with mixed monarchies:

🇯🇴  Jordan
🇱🇮  Liechtenstein
🇲🇦  Morocco

Interestingly, Liechtenstein is the only European monarchy that still practises strict agnatic primogeniture. Under agnatic primogeniture, the degree of kinship is determined by tracing descent from the nearest common ancestor through male ancestors.

Kings, Queens, Emperors, and Sultans Around the Globe

Now let’s break down the different monarchies country by country:

CountryType of MonarchyTitle of Head of StateMonarchTitle of Head of Government
🇦🇩 AndorraConstitutionalCo-PrincesJoan-Enric Vives, Emmanuel MacronPrime Minister
🇦🇬 Antigua and BarbudaConstitutionalKingCharles IIIPrime Minister
🇦🇺 AustraliaConstitutionalKingCharles IIIPrime Minister
🇧🇭 BahrainMixedKingHamad bin Isa Al KhalifaPrime Minister
🇧🇪 BelgiumConstitutionalKing PhilippePrime Minister
🇧🇿 BelizeConstitutionalKingCharles IIIPrime Minister
🇧🇹 BhutanConstitutionalKingJigme Khesar Namgyel WangchuckPrime Minister
🇧🇳 Brunei DarussalamAbsoluteSultanHassanal BolkiahSultan
🇰🇭 CambodiaConstitutionalKingNorodom SihamoniPrime Minister
🇨🇦 CanadaConstitutionalKingCharles IIIPrime Minister
🇩🇰 DenmarkConstitutionalQueenMargrethe IIPrime Minister
🇸🇿 EswatiniAbsoluteKingMswati IIIPrime Minister
🇬🇩 GrenadaConstitutionalKingCharles IIIPrime Minister
🇯🇲 JamaicaConstitutionalKingCharles IIIPrime Minister
🇯🇵 JapanConstitutionalEmperorNaruhitoPrime Minister
🇯🇴 JordanMixedKingAbdullah IIPrime Minister
🇰🇼 KuwaitMixedEmirNawaf Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-SabahPrime Minister
🇱🇸 LesothoConstitutionalKingLetsie IIIPrime Minister
🇱🇮 Liechtenstein MixedSovereign PrinceHans-Adam IIPrime Minister
🇱🇺 LuxembourgConstitutionalGrand DukeHenriPrime Minister
🇲🇾 MalaysiaConstitutional & FederalYang di-Pertuan AgongAbdullahPrime Minister
🇲🇨 MonacoMixedSovereign PrinceAlbert IIMinister of State
🇲🇦 MoroccoMixedKingMohammed VIPrime Minister
🇳🇱 NetherlandsConstitutionalKingWillem-AlexanderPrime Minister
🇳🇿 New ZealandConstitutionalKingCharles IIIPrime Minister
🇳🇴 NorwayConstitutionalKingHarald VPrime Minister
🇴🇲 OmanAbsoluteSultanHaitham bin TarikSultan
🇵🇬 Papua New GuineaConstitutionalKingCharles IIIPrime Minister
🇶🇦 QatarMixedEmirTamim bin Hamad Al ThaniPrime Minister
🇰🇳 Saint Kitts and NevisConstitutionalKingCharles IIIPrime Minister
🇱🇨 Saint LuciaConstitutionalKingCharles IIIPrime Minister
🇻🇨 Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesConstitutionalKingCharles IIIPrime Minister
🇸🇦 Saudi ArabiaAbsoluteKingSalmanPrime Minister
🇸🇧 Solomon IslandsConstitutionalKingCharles IIIPrime Minister
🇪🇸 SpainConstitutionalKingFelipe VIPresident of the Government
🇸🇪 SwedenConstitutionalKingCarl XVI GustafPrime Minister
🇹🇭 ThailandConstitutionalKingRama XPrime Minister
🇧🇸 The BahamasConstitutionalKingCharles IIIPrime Minister
🇹🇴 TongaConstitutionalKingTupou VIPrime Minister
🇹🇻 TuvaluConstitutionalKingCharles IIIPrime Minister
🇦🇪 UAEFederalPresidentMohamed bin Zayed Al NahyanPrime Minister
🇬🇧 UKConstitutionalKingCharles IIIPrime Minister
🇻🇦 Vatican CityAbsolutePopeFrancisPresident of the Pontifical Commission

Constitutional monarchies are undoubtedly the most popular form of royal leadership in the modern era⁠, making up close to 70% of all monarchies. This situation allows for democratically elected governments to rule the country, while the monarch performs ceremonial duties.

Most monarchs are hereditary, inheriting their position by luck of their birth, but interestingly, French president, Emmanuel Macron, technically serves as a Co-Prince of Andorra.

Another unique case is the Vatican’s Pope Francis, who has absolute power in the small independent city⁠—he gained his role thanks to an election process known as a papal conclave.

The Role of Monarchies

One of the most notable and famous ruling monarchies is the United Kingdom’s House of Windsor⁠—also known as Queen Elizabeth II’s family. King Charles III has now ascended to the country’s throne, making him head of state in 15 nations total, including Canada, Australia, and New Zealand.

Many see the benefit in having a stable and consistent form of tradition and decorum at the country’s head of state.

“The Crown is an integral part of the institution of Parliament. The Queen [now King] plays a constitutional role in opening and dissolving Parliament and approving Bills before they become law.” – British Parliament

Japan’s royal family has been a prime example of stability, having reigned in the country for more than 2,600 years under the same hereditary line.

Critiques and the Future of Monarchy

Some claim, however, that there is no function of monarchy in the modern day, and complaints of monarchies’ immense wealth and power are rampant.

For example, according to the Dutch government, King Willem-Alexander’s budget for 2022, funded by the state and thus, taxpayers, comes out to more than €48 million.

Beyond tax dollars, with absolute monarchies there is typically a lack of political freedoms and certain rights. Saudi Arabia, for example, has no national elections. Rather its king, Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, stays in power for life, appoints the cabinet himself, and passes laws by royal decree.

The death of Queen Elizabeth, though, may bring about change though for many of the world’s royally-governed. Since Barbados’ removal of her as head of state in 2021, six other Caribbean nations have expressed the desire to do the same, namely:

🇧🇿  Belize
🇧🇸  The Bahamas
🇯🇲  Jamaica
🇬🇩  Grenada
🇦🇬  Antigua and Barbuda
🇰🇳  St. Kitts and Nevis

The future of monarchy in the 21st century is certainly not a guarantee.

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Water

Mapped: Countries With the Highest Flood Risk

Recent floods in Pakistan have affected more than 33 million people. Where is the risk of flooding highest around the world?

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Risk of Flooding Mapped Around the World

This was originally posted on Elements. Sign up to the free mailing list to get beautiful visualizations on natural resource megatrends in your email every week.

Devastating floods across Pakistan this summer have resulted in more than 1,400 lives lost and one-third of the country being under water.

This raises the question: which nations and their populations are the most vulnerable to the risk of flooding around the world?

Using data from a recent study published in Nature, this graphic maps flood risk around the world, highlighting the 1.81 billion people directly exposed to 1-in-100 year floods. The methodology takes into account potential risks from both inland and coastal flooding.

Asian Countries Most at Risk from Rising Water Levels

Not surprisingly, countries with considerable coastlines, river systems, and flatlands find themselves with high percentages of their population at risk.

The Netherlands and Bangladesh are the only two nations in the world to have more than half of their population at risk due to flooding, at 59% and 58%, respectively. Vietnam (46%), Egypt (41%), and Myanmar (40%) round out the rest of the top five nations.

Besides the Netherlands, only two other European nations are in the top 20 nations by percentage of population at risk, Austria (18th at 29%) and Albania (20th at 28%).

RankCountryFlood risk, by population exposed (%)Total population exposed
#1🇳🇱 Netherlands58.7%10,100,000
#2🇧🇩 Bangladesh57.5%94,424,000
#3🇻🇳 Vietnam46.0%45,504,000
#4🇪🇬 Egypt40.5%38,871,000
#5🇲🇲 Myanmar39.9%19,104,000
#6🇱🇦 Laos39.7%2,985,000
#7🇰🇭 Cambodia38.1%7,431,000
#8🇬🇾 Guyana37.9%276,000
#9🇸🇷 Suriname37.7%233,000
#10🇮🇶 Iraq36.8%16,350,000
#11🇹🇭 Thailand33.9%25,431,000
#12🇸🇸 South Sudan32.5%5,437,000
#13🇵🇰 Pakistan31.1%71,786,000
#14🇳🇵 Nepal29.4%11,993,000
#15🇨🇬 Republic of the Congo29.3%1,170,000
#16🇵🇭 Philippines29.0%30,483,000
#17🇯🇵 Japan28.7%36,060,000
#18🇦🇹 Austria27.8%2,437,000
#19🇮🇳 India27.7%389,816,000
#20🇦🇱 Albania27.6%771,000
#21🇨🇳 China27.5%394,826,000
#22🇹🇩 Chad27.4%4,547,000
#23🇮🇩 Indonesia27.0%75,696,000
#24🇭🇷 Croatia26.9%1,094,000
#25🇸🇰 Slovakia26.7%1,401,000

The Southeast Asia region alone makes up more than two-thirds of the global population exposed to flooding risk at 1.24 billion people.

China and India account for 395 million and 390 million people, respectively, with both nations at the top in terms of the absolute number of people at risk of rising water levels. The rest of the top five countries by total population at risk are Bangladesh (94 million people at risk), Indonesia (76 million people at risk), and Pakistan (72 million people at risk).

How Flooding is Already Affecting Countries Like Pakistan

While forecasted climate and natural disasters can often take years to manifest, flooding affected more than 100 million people in 2021. Recent summer floods in Pakistan have continued the trend in 2022.

With 31% of its population (72 million people) at risk of flooding, Pakistan is particularly vulnerable to floods.

In 2010, floods in Pakistan were estimated to have affected more than 18 million people. The recent floods, which started in June, are estimated to have affected more than 33 million people as more than one-third of the country is submerged underwater.

The Cost of Floods Today and in the Future

Although the rising human toll is by far the biggest concern that floods present, they also bring with them massive economic costs. Last year, droughts, floods, and storms caused economic losses totaling $224.2 billion worldwide, nearly doubling the 2001-2020 annual average of $117.8 billion.

A recent report forecasted that water risk (caused by droughts, floods, and storms) could eat up $5.6 trillion of global GDP by 2050, with floods projected to account for 36% of these direct losses.

As both human and economic losses caused by floods continue to mount, nations around the world will need to focus on preventative infrastructure and restorative solutions for ecosystems and communities already affected and most at risk of flooding.

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