Comparing the Cost of Living Around the World
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Comparing the Cost of Living Around the World

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This graphic compares the cost of living and purchasing power of 578 cities worldwide, using New York City as a benchmark for comparison.

Open the large interactive version here

This graphic compares the cost of living and purchasing power of 578 cities worldwide, using New York City as a benchmark for comparison.

Comparing The Cost of Living Around the World

The amount of money that’s needed to pay for day-to-day expenses like housing and food varies greatly from city to city. And some cities, like New York City, are known as especially expensive places to live.

So how do everyday expenses in New York City truly compare in costs to places like Beirut, Lebanon, or Bangalore, India?

This graphic by Victor Dépré (hypntic.data) uses 2022 data from Numbeo to compare the cost of living and purchasing power in 578 different cities around the world, using New York City as a benchmark for comparison.

The Cost of Living Index

Though New York City is widely recognized as one of the most expensive cities in the world, according to Numbeo—the world’s largest database of user-contributed data on cities and countries—there are a number of cities that are actually more expensive than the Big Apple.

Here’s a look at the comparative cost of living in 578 cities. For context, if a city has a cost of living index of 121, that means day-to-day expenses in it are 21% higher than New York’s, on average:

CityCountryCost of Living Index
HamiltonBermuda149.0
ZurichSwitzerland131.2
BaselSwitzerland130.9
ZugSwitzerland128.1
LuganoSwitzerland124.0
LausanneSwitzerland122.0
BeirutLebanon120.5
BernSwitzerland118.2
GenevaSwitzerland114.1
StavangerNorway104.6
Honolulu, HIUnited States103.7
OsloNorway102.3
BergenNorway100.4
New York, NYUnited States100.0
TrondheimNorway99.4
TromsoNorway99.0
ReykjavikIceland97.6
Saint HelierJersey96.5
Santa Barbara, CAUnited States95.0
Tel Aviv-YafoIsrael94.5
Berkeley, CAUnited States94.4
San Francisco, CAUnited States93.9
Oakland, CAUnited States92.9
Anchorage, AKUnited States91.2
Santa Clara, CAUnited States89.4
Petah TikvaIsrael88.9
BeershebaIsrael88.8
Seattle, WAUnited States88.5
CopenhagenDenmark88.3
ArhusDenmark88.2
HaifaIsrael87.4
JerusalemIsrael86.3
NassauBahamas86.0
LondonUnited Kingdom85.6
TokyoJapan85.6
Boston, MAUnited States85.5
NiceFrance84.6
ParisFrance84.4
Queens, NYUnited States84.0
SingaporeSingapore84.0
Washington, DCUnited States83.7
SydneyAustralia83.2
LuxembourgLuxembourg83.0
EspooFinland82.5
AalborgDenmark82.4
Pittsburgh, PAUnited States82.4
DarwinAustralia82.1
AmsterdamNetherlands80.8
Jersey City, NJUnited States80.8
Hong KongHong Kong80.7
BredaNetherlands80.6
Nanaimo, BCCanada80.3
AucklandNew Zealand80.2
HaarlemNetherlands79.8
UtrechtNetherlands79.8
BrightonUnited Kingdom79.6
BrisbaneAustralia79.4
Philadelphia, PAUnited States79.2
Los Angeles, CAUnited States79.2
Minneapolis, MNUnited States79.1
TurkuFinland79.1
DublinIreland79.1
StockholmSweden78.9
Birmingham, ALUnited States78.8
SeoulSouth Korea78.7
EindhovenNetherlands78.2
OdenseDenmark78.2
Miami, FLUnited States78.0
GroningenNetherlands77.9
Sacramento, CAUnited States77.9
NijmegenNetherlands77.8
MunichGermany77.5
GalwayIreland77.4
St. John's, Newfoundland and LabradorCanada77.4
InnsbruckAustria77.3
PerthAustralia77.3
Charleston, SCUnited States77.3
Asheville, NCUnited States77.3
LyonFrance77.2
LeidenNetherlands77.2
HelsinkiFinland77.2
Chicago, ILUnited States77.1
Fort Lauderdale, FLUnited States76.9
Portland, ORUnited States76.8
MelbourneAustralia76.8
OsakaJapan76.7
WellingtonNew Zealand76.7
VictoriaCanada76.7
VancouverCanada76.6
Atlanta, GAUnited States76.6
AdelaideAustralia76.6
LundSweden76.6
ToulouseFrance76.6
GuelphCanada76.4
RotterdamNetherlands76.2
Saint Paul, MNUnited States76.2
CorkIreland76.2
GuildfordUnited Kingdom76.0
Plano, TXUnited States75.9
CanberraAustralia75.9
Tampa, FLUnited States75.8
Gold CoastAustralia75.8
OxfordUnited Kingdom75.7
NagoyaJapan75.6
LincolnUnited Kingdom75.6
YorkUnited Kingdom75.5
San Diego, CAUnited States75.5
Cleveland, OHUnited States75.4
Omaha, NEUnited States75.3
LeuvenBelgium75.3
ReadingUnited Kingdom75.3
HamiltonNew Zealand75.2
Denver, COUnited States75.2
UppsalaSweden75.1
NewcastleAustralia75.0
HalifaxCanada74.9
MilanItaly74.8
SliemaMalta74.8
GrazAustria74.6
BrusselsBelgium74.4
Buffalo, NYUnited States74.3
TorontoCanada74.3
Colorado Springs, COUnited States74.3
Fremont, CAUnited States74.1
LimerickIreland74.1
Salem, ORUnited States74.0
The Hague (Den Haag)Netherlands73.9
HobartAustralia73.9
ChristchurchNew Zealand73.9
MalmoSweden73.8
San Jose, CAUnited States73.7
Nashville, TNUnited States73.6
EnschedeNetherlands73.6
Olympia, WAUnited States73.6
MaastrichtNetherlands73.6
Baltimore, MDUnited States73.6
New Orleans, LAUnited States73.6
LinzAustria73.6
CalgaryCanada73.4
EdinburghUnited Kingdom73.2
OttawaCanada73.2
Milton KeynesUnited Kingdom73.1
ManchesterUnited Kingdom73.1
MississaugaCanada73.1
CambridgeUnited Kingdom73.1
GothenburgSweden73.0
EdmontonCanada72.9
ParmaItaly72.8
GenoaItaly72.8
FrankfurtGermany72.8
Fort Collins, COUnited States72.8
GrenobleFrance72.7
BergamoItaly72.6
DerbyUnited Kingdom72.6
Iowa City, IAUnited States72.5
DelftNetherlands72.5
Syracuse, NYUnited States72.5
Everett, WAUnited States72.4
SaskatoonCanada72.3
HeidelbergGermany72.1
MarkhamCanada72.1
HamburgGermany72.0
Red DeerCanada71.7
SurreyCanada71.7
TriesteItaly71.7
Rochester, NYUnited States71.6
Milwaukee, WIUnited States71.6
Albany, NYUnited States71.5
LiverpoolUnited Kingdom71.4
NottinghamUnited Kingdom71.3
AntwerpBelgium71.3
BristolUnited Kingdom71.3
TampereFinland71.2
PortsmouthUnited Kingdom71.2
BonnGermany71.1
MarseilleFrance71.1
RomeItaly71.0
TaurangaNew Zealand70.9
FlorenceItaly70.8
PlymouthUnited Kingdom70.7
Detroit, MIUnited States70.7
Reno, NVUnited States70.7
OuluFinland70.6
MontrealCanada70.6
SalzburgAustria70.5
LondonCanada70.5
BramptonCanada70.4
Fort Worth, TXUnited States70.4
Durham, NCUnited States70.4
WinnipegCanada70.3
Ann Arbor, MIUnited States70.3
Greensboro, NCUnited States70.3
San JuanPuerto Rico70.1
Charlotte, NCUnited States70.1
NorwichUnited Kingdom70.1
GentBelgium70.0
ExeterUnited Kingdom69.9
DortmundGermany69.9
Long Beach, CAUnited States69.9
BolognaItaly69.8
North VancouverCanada69.8
KelownaCanada69.7
Columbus, OHUnited States69.7
BresciaItaly69.6
Eugene, ORUnited States69.6
MacaoMacao69.6
CologneGermany69.6
Jacksonville, FLUnited States69.5
ReginaCanada69.4
Phoenix, AZUnited States69.4
Des Moines, IAUnited States69.3
Quebec CityCanada69.0
Fresno, CAUnited States69.0
BerlinGermany68.9
CardiffUnited Kingdom68.9
WindsorCanada68.9
GlasgowUnited Kingdom68.8
KitchenerCanada68.7
Vancouver, WAUnited States68.6
KingstonCanada68.6
AugsburgGermany68.5
StuttgartGermany68.4
ViennaAustria68.4
MannheimGermany68.4
Las Vegas, NVUnited States68.3
Boise, IDUnited States68.3
DusseldorfGermany68.3
Raleigh, NCUnited States68.2
PisaItaly68.2
Spokane, WAUnited States68.1
Orlando, FLUnited States68.1
Dayton, OHUnited States68.0
VeronaItaly68.0
Dallas, TXUnited States67.9
Richmond, VAUnited States67.8
Louisville, KYUnited States67.7
SouthamptonUnited Kingdom67.6
LeedsUnited Kingdom67.6
TrevisoItaly67.5
Madison, WIUnited States67.3
BirminghamUnited Kingdom67.3
Indianapolis, INUnited States67.1
HanoverGermany67.0
NurembergGermany67.0
HamiltonCanada67.0
CoventryUnited Kingdom66.9
Newcastle upon TyneUnited Kingdom66.9
Saint Louis, MOUnited States66.8
UlmGermany66.7
Stoke-on-TrentUnited Kingdom66.6
Austin, TXUnited States66.5
DundeeUnited Kingdom66.5
SaarbruckenGermany66.3
Kansas City, MOUnited States66.1
CagliariItaly66.1
KarlsruheGermany65.9
SheffieldUnited Kingdom65.9
TaipeiTaiwan65.8
BelfastUnited Kingdom65.7
Chattanooga, TNUnited States65.7
DarmstadtGermany65.5
LimassolCyprus65.3
TurinItaly65.2
St.CatharinesCanada65.2
BestNetherlands65.1
Toledo, OHUnited States65.0
Salt Lake City, UTUnited States65.0
Oklahoma City, OKUnited States64.9
PadovaItaly64.9
LeicesterUnited Kingdom64.9
Freiburg im BreisgauGermany64.7
ErlangenGermany64.5
NicosiaCyprus64.5
Cincinnati, OHUnited States64.4
Tucson, AZUnited States64.3
DubaiUnited Arab Emirates64.3
Houston, TXUnited States63.9
BilbaoSpain63.8
BournemouthUnited Kingdom63.7
Mesa, AZUnited States63.7
EssenGermany63.6
Albuquerque, NMUnited States63.4
AberdeenUnited Kingdom63.4
Lexington, KYUnited States62.9
DohaQatar62.9
LeipzigGermany62.8
San Antonio, TXUnited States62.6
BariItaly62.6
DresdenGermany62.5
Tulsa, OKUnited States62.4
NaplesItaly62.4
Memphis, TNUnited States62.3
BremenGermany62.2
Akron, OHUnited States62.2
Kingston upon HullUnited Kingdom62.1
AachenGermany61.8
KaohsiungTaiwan61.4
RegensburgGermany61.4
BarcelonaSpain61.2
Little Rock, ARUnited States59.3
Port of SpainTrinidad And Tobago59.2
MadridSpain59.0
Palma de MallorcaSpain59.0
AthensGreece59.0
Wichita, KSUnited States58.9
PatrasGreece58.7
ThessalonikiGreece58.4
PalermoItaly58.0
Abu DhabiUnited Arab Emirates57.9
LarnacaCyprus57.4
CataniaItaly57.4
MaleMaldives57.3
LjubljanaSlovenia57.2
HeraklionGreece57.1
El Paso, TXUnited States55.9
HavanaCuba55.9
TallinnEstonia55.8
Zaragoza (Saragossa)Spain54.8
Panama CityPanama54.5
ManamaBahrain54.3
ShanghaiChina53.9
RiyadhSaudi Arabia53.9
TartuEstonia53.8
VigoSpain53.4
Seville (Sevilla)Spain53.3
ValenciaSpain53.0
PaphosCyprus52.9
MakatiPhilippines52.7
AjmanUnited Arab Emirates52.6
Jeddah (Jiddah)Saudi Arabia52.6
MalagaSpain52.5
AmmanJordan52.2
GranadaSpain52.0
MontevideoUruguay52.0
PragueCzech Republic51.8
MurciaSpain51.7
LisbonPortugal51.7
MariborSlovenia51.6
SplitCroatia51.6
KingstonJamaica51.6
RigaLatvia51.5
AlicanteSpain51.5
MuscatOman51.2
ShenzhenChina51.1
Santa Cruz de TenerifeSpain50.9
DakarSenegal50.9
CascaisPortugal50.9
Las Palmas de Gran CanariaSpain50.5
Addis AbabaEthiopia50.5
BangkokThailand50.4
RijekaCroatia50.1
Phnom PenhCambodia50.1
ZagrebCroatia49.9
BeijingChina49.5
BratislavaSlovakia49.4
PortoPortugal49.4
BrnoCzech Republic49.3
HangzhouChina49.2
ParamariboSuriname49.2
FunchalPortugal49.2
SharjahUnited Arab Emirates49.0
Ad DammamSaudi Arabia48.5
OlomoucCzech Republic48.2
KosiceSlovakia48.2
Kuwait CityKuwait48.0
San JoseCosta Rica47.7
CoimbraPortugal47.4
AbidjanIvory Coast47.1
BragaPortugal47.0
VilniusLithuania46.9
OstravaCzech Republic46.5
AveiroPortugal46.5
BudapestHungary46.1
SuzhouChina45.9
HarareZimbabwe45.7
LeiriaPortugal45.7
SantiagoChile45.6
San SalvadorEl Salvador45.3
CaracasVenezuela45.3
JohannesburgSouth Africa44.9
KaunasLithuania44.7
Santo DomingoDominican Republic44.7
Guatemala CityGuatemala44.6
PhuketThailand44.3
WarsawPoland43.9
ChengduChina43.8
OsijekCroatia43.6
Quezon CityPhilippines43.3
GdyniaPoland42.9
BaliIndonesia42.9
PretoriaSouth Africa42.8
GaboroneBotswana42.7
NanjingChina42.3
SofiaBulgaria42.2
Chiang MaiThailand42.2
MoscowRussia42.2
PattayaThailand42.1
GdanskPoland41.3
Krakow (Cracow)Poland41.3
WroclawPoland41.1
GuangzhouChina41.1
Cape TownSouth Africa41.0
JakartaIndonesia40.9
PecsHungary40.8
ManilaPhilippines40.8
PoznanPoland40.7
QuitoEcuador40.5
DurbanSouth Africa40.3
KatowicePoland40.3
Cluj-NapocaRomania40.2
BucharestRomania40.1
SzegedHungary40.1
BelgradeSerbia40.1
DebrecenHungary40.0
Petaling JayaMalaysia40.0
MarrakechMorocco39.9
PodgoricaMontenegro39.3
SzczecinPoland39.3
Kota KinabaluMalaysia39.3
Kuala LumpurMalaysia39.3
VarnaBulgaria39.1
SuvaFiji39.0
CebuPhilippines39.0
Ho Chi Minh CityVietnam39.0
CancunMexico38.9
AccraGhana38.7
TiranaAlbania38.7
GuayaquilEcuador38.6
MonterreyMexico38.5
PlovdivBulgaria38.4
SarajevoBosnia And Herzegovina38.4
LublinPoland38.0
Erbil (Irbil)Iraq38.0
Santa CruzBolivia38.0
Isfahan (Esfahan)Iran38.0
LodzPoland37.9
Saint PetersburgRussia37.8
Banja LukaBosnia And Herzegovina37.6
PenangMalaysia37.6
La PazBolivia37.5
Sao PauloBrazil37.5
Novi SadSerbia37.4
Mexico CityMexico37.4
LagosNigeria37.3
ConstantaRomania37.3
IasiRomania37.1
HanoiVietnam36.9
TangierMorocco36.9
BrasiliaBrazil36.8
BurgasBulgaria36.8
BaguioPhilippines36.7
Rio de JaneiroBrazil36.7
BrasovRomania36.6
CasablancaMorocco36.6
DamascusSyria36.4
SibiuRomania36.2
TimisoaraRomania36.2
KampalaUganda36.0
NairobiKenya35.9
MeridaMexico35.7
RabatMorocco35.7
Qingdao, ShandongChina35.5
QueretaroMexico35.4
BandungIndonesia35.4
OradeaRomania35.4
Buenos AiresArgentina35.3
DhakaBangladesh35.1
SkopjeNorth Macedonia34.9
UlaanbaatarMongolia34.9
CraiovaRomania34.9
AgadirMorocco34.8
BaghdadIraq34.8
SurabayaIndonesia34.7
LimaPeru34.6
AradRomania34.5
FlorianopolisBrazil34.4
CuencaEcuador34.2
Kiev (Kyiv)Ukraine34.1
GurgaonIndia34.1
GuadalajaraMexico34.1
KazanRussia34.0
YerevanArmenia34.0
Dar es SalaamTanzania34.0
Nizhny NovgorodRussia33.9
ColomboSri Lanka33.6
LusakaZambia33.6
NisSerbia33.4
YekaterinburgRussia33.2
MinskBelarus32.8
KrasnodarRussia32.7
MashhadIran32.5
Belo HorizonteBrazil32.5
CairoEgypt32.4
Porto AlegreBrazil32.3
KigaliRwanda32.3
NovosibirskRussia32.3
Rostov-na-donuRussia32.1
Odessa (Odesa)Ukraine31.9
ChisinauMoldova31.8
CuritibaBrazil31.8
BakuAzerbaijan31.6
TehranIran31.5
IstanbulTurkey31.1
TbilisiGeorgia31.0
YogyakartaIndonesia30.8
AsuncionParaguay30.6
KharkivUkraine30.5
Astana (Nur-Sultan)Kazakhstan30.3
ChandigarhIndia30.3
AlmatyKazakhstan30.2
TunisTunisia29.9
KathmanduNepal29.9
AlgiersAlgeria29.8
LvivUkraine29.7
TashkentUzbekistan29.4
MumbaiIndia29.3
DniproUkraine29.3
NoidaIndia29.2
MedellinColombia28.8
AlexandriaEgypt28.4
BarranquillaColombia28.4
Navi MumbaiIndia28.4
IzmirTurkey28.4
DelhiIndia28.2
BangaloreIndia28.2
BogotaColombia27.9
GoaIndia27.7
PuneIndia27.6
GhaziabadIndia27.6
ThaneIndia27.5
RanchiIndia27.3
AnkaraTurkey27.2
HyderabadIndia26.6
FaridabadIndia26.6
BishkekKyrgyzstan26.6
PristinaKosovo (Disputed Territory)26.2
ChennaiIndia26.1
AhmedabadIndia26.0
KolkataIndia26.0
CaliColombia25.8
GuwahatiIndia25.6
Lucknow (Lakhnau)India25.4
MaduraiIndia25.4
SuratIndia25.3
VadodaraIndia25.3
VijayawadaIndia25.0
LudhianaIndia24.9
Cyberjaya, SelangorMalaysia24.9
RaipurIndia24.8
DehradunIndia24.8
NashikIndia24.6
IndoreIndia24.5
RajkotIndia24.5
NagpurIndia24.4
ErnakulamIndia24.0
VisakhapatnamIndia24.0
JaipurIndia24.0
PatnaIndia24.0
MangaloreIndia23.7
BucaramangaColombia23.7
CoimbatoreIndia23.5
BhopalIndia23.4
BhubaneswarIndia23.3
MysoreIndia23.2
KochiIndia22.9
AgraIndia22.8
JammuIndia22.0
ThiruvananthapuramIndia21.8
Kozhikode (Calicut)India21.6
LahorePakistan21.5
IslamabadPakistan21.5
KabulAfghanistan21.4
ThrissurIndia21.3
KanpurIndia20.8
KarachiPakistan20.8
RawalpindiPakistan20.5
MultanPakistan18.7
PeshawarPakistan18.6

Bermuda’s capital city Hamilton ranks first on the list, with a cost of living that’s nearly 50% higher than New York’s.

Why is Hamilton so expensive? One reason is that nearly everything needs to be imported onto the tiny British archipelago—things like gas, groceries, and clothes—so it’s likely that prices in the territory are steep as a result.

Second on the list is Zurich, Switzerland, where expenses are roughly 30% higher than New York City. Food and beverages are particularly expensive in the region—according to the dataset, groceries are 58% more expensive than groceries in NYC, and restaurant prices are 55% higher.

However, it’s worth noting that while Zurich ranks high on the cost of living index, the city’s purchasing power is also strong, which we will dive into in the next section.

The Local Purchasing Power Index

Purchasing power is a metric that’s used to gauge the number of goods and services someone on an average salary can buy in that specific city.

Taking a look again at Zurich, consumers in the city have about 30% more purchasing power than New York City residents on average, despite having higher costs.

CityCountryLocal Purchasing Power Index
Houston, TXUnited States173.0
Dallas, TXUnited States170.7
Ann Arbor, MIUnited States160.0
Austin, TXUnited States158.2
Fremont, CAUnited States157.4
San Jose, CAUnited States157.4
Jersey City, NJUnited States155.9
Santa Clara, CAUnited States155.4
Columbus, OHUnited States151.3
Seattle, WAUnited States145.4
Charlotte, NCUnited States144.9
Jacksonville, FLUnited States144.3
Raleigh, NCUnited States144.1
ZugSwitzerland143.4
Salt Lake City, UTUnited States140.6
San Antonio, TXUnited States137.7
Colorado Springs, COUnited States137.6
Baltimore, MDUnited States136.1
Phoenix, AZUnited States135.9
Chicago, ILUnited States135.3
San Francisco, CAUnited States133.2
Madison, WIUnited States132.1
Tulsa, OKUnited States132.1
ErlangenGermany131.8
Little Rock, ARUnited States131.1
Richmond, VAUnited States130.9
Atlanta, GAUnited States130.7
Denver, COUnited States130.0
ZurichSwitzerland129.8
Albany, NYUnited States129.8
Cyberjaya, SelangorMalaysia128.5
Oklahoma City, OKUnited States128.0
San Diego, CAUnited States127.9
Kansas City, MOUnited States127.2
LausanneSwitzerland127.0
Los Angeles, CAUnited States126.1
Vancouver, WAUnited States126.1
Cleveland, OHUnited States125.3
Cincinnati, OHUnited States125.2
Las Vegas, NVUnited States124.8
Buffalo, NYUnited States124.4
Red DeerCanada123.9
Orlando, FLUnited States123.3
HamiltonNew Zealand123.2
Saint Louis, MOUnited States123.2
Albuquerque, NMUnited States122.4
Washington, DCUnited States121.8
Indianapolis, INUnited States121.5
Charleston, SCUnited States121.3
GenevaSwitzerland120.6
DerbyUnited Kingdom119.8
Wichita, KSUnited States119.2
NewcastleAustralia118.9
El Paso, TXUnited States118.8
Anchorage, AKUnited States118.6
AachenGermany116.5
Fresno, CAUnited States116.4
Boston, MAUnited States115.7
NurembergGermany115.7
Philadelphia, PAUnited States115.6
Pittsburgh, PAUnited States115.5
Minneapolis, MNUnited States114.7
CalgaryCanada114.2
Fort Worth, TXUnited States112.6
BernSwitzerland112.5
Spokane, WAUnited States112.4
LuganoSwitzerland112.0
Oakland, CAUnited States111.7
BaselSwitzerland111.5
Nashville, TNUnited States111.5
Detroit, MIUnited States110.1
North VancouverCanada110.1
PerthAustralia110.0
Long Beach, CAUnited States110.0
DusseldorfGermany110.0
Memphis, TNUnited States110.0
Louisville, KYUnited States109.7
EdmontonCanada109.5
DarwinAustralia109.4
Milwaukee, WIUnited States109.2
DresdenGermany109.1
StuttgartGermany109.0
Olympia, WAUnited States108.8
MarkhamCanada108.7
CoventryUnited Kingdom108.7
DarmstadtGermany108.5
Des Moines, IAUnited States108.4
Portland, ORUnited States108.1
UlmGermany107.4
FrankfurtGermany106.9
Saint Paul, MNUnited States106.6
CardiffUnited Kingdom106.2
Omaha, NEUnited States106.0
BerlinGermany105.9
Queens, NYUnited States105.7
DortmundGermany105.6
Plano, TXUnited States105.4
CanberraAustralia105.1
LundSweden104.9
Durham, NCUnited States104.8
SydneyAustralia104.5
AdelaideAustralia104.2
OxfordUnited Kingdom104.0
ReginaCanada104.0
BrisbaneAustralia103.8
BramptonCanada103.5
Mesa, AZUnited States103.4
RegensburgGermany103.3
KarlsruheGermany103.0
Akron, OHUnited States102.9
BangaloreIndia102.6
Lexington, KYUnited States102.4
MelbourneAustralia102.2
HeidelbergGermany102.2
AberdeenUnited Kingdom102.0
Everett, WAUnited States101.8
HobartAustralia101.6
WinnipegCanada101.6
Sacramento, CAUnited States101.4
Fort Lauderdale, FLUnited States101.3
TorontoCanada101.3
Gold CoastAustralia101.2
GothenburgSweden101.2
HamburgGermany101.1
OuluFinland101.1
DubaiUnited Arab Emirates101.1
AalborgDenmark100.9
ReadingUnited Kingdom100.9
LondonCanada100.4
Fort Collins, COUnited States100.3
LuxembourgLuxembourg100.2
Rochester, NYUnited States100.1
New York, NYUnited States100.0
MississaugaCanada99.7
SouthamptonUnited Kingdom98.4
Tampa, FLUnited States98.3
SurreyCanada98.1
Stoke-on-TrentUnited Kingdom97.9
Newcastle upon TyneUnited Kingdom97.7
BestNetherlands97.2
Reno, NVUnited States96.9
TurkuFinland96.8
LimerickIreland96.5
GlasgowUnited Kingdom96.4
BonnGermany95.7
HanoverGermany95.6
ArhusDenmark95.5
StockholmSweden95.4
MarseilleFrance95.3
MunichGermany95.2
MannheimGermany95.1
OdenseDenmark94.8
AmsterdamNetherlands94.5
Freiburg im BreisgauGermany94.5
OttawaCanada94.3
Asheville, NCUnited States94.2
Santa Barbara, CAUnited States93.9
ExeterUnited Kingdom93.9
EnschedeNetherlands93.8
Miami, FLUnited States93.7
Ad DammamSaudi Arabia93.6
New Orleans, LAUnited States92.9
CambridgeUnited Kingdom92.9
Greensboro, NCUnited States92.7
RiyadhSaudi Arabia92.7
LeicesterUnited Kingdom92.6
DelftNetherlands91.7
Chattanooga, TNUnited States91.7
NottinghamUnited Kingdom91.6
BelfastUnited Kingdom91.6
RotterdamNetherlands91.4
TampereFinland91.4
SingaporeSingapore91.3
ManchesterUnited Kingdom91.3
CopenhagenDenmark90.7
Toledo, OHUnited States90.5
EspooFinland90.3
AntwerpBelgium90.3
ChristchurchNew Zealand90.2
ToulouseFrance90.1
LiverpoolUnited Kingdom90.1
MontrealCanada89.9
DohaQatar89.9
TromsoNorway89.5
Honolulu, HIUnited States89.2
Salem, ORUnited States89.2
VictoriaCanada89.1
CologneGermany89.1
SheffieldUnited Kingdom89.1
LincolnUnited Kingdom89.0
LondonUnited Kingdom88.8
TokyoJapan88.6
The Hague (Den Haag)Netherlands88.5
LeedsUnited Kingdom88.5
SaskatoonCanada88.2
Eugene, ORUnited States88.2
TrondheimNorway88.0
EdinburghUnited Kingdom88.0
HalifaxCanada87.9
VancouverCanada87.7
PretoriaSouth Africa87.3
Quebec CityCanada87.2
BergenNorway87.0
BrusselsBelgium87.0
EindhovenNetherlands86.9
Kingston upon HullUnited Kingdom86.6
NijmegenNetherlands86.5
MaastrichtNetherlands86.5
MuscatOman86.5
HamiltonCanada86.4
StavangerNorway85.9
Berkeley, CAUnited States85.8
WellingtonNew Zealand85.5
SaarbruckenGermany85.4
OsloNorway85.2
Iowa City, IAUnited States85.0
PortsmouthUnited Kingdom85.0
Birmingham, ALUnited States84.9
MalmoSweden84.9
BristolUnited Kingdom84.8
CorkIreland84.5
TaurangaNew Zealand84.4
BredaNetherlands84.3
PlymouthUnited Kingdom84.0
UppsalaSweden83.9
Tucson, AZUnited States83.7
LeuvenBelgium83.6
HelsinkiFinland83.5
LyonFrance82.7
Boise, IDUnited States82.6
DundeeUnited Kingdom82.4
EssenGermany81.9
DublinIreland81.8
BirminghamUnited Kingdom81.8
OsakaJapan81.6
GrenobleFrance81.6
GranadaSpain81.6
Saint HelierJersey80.4
ParisFrance80.2
BeershebaIsrael80.1
AugsburgGermany79.9
AlicanteSpain79.9
LeipzigGermany79.8
NorwichUnited Kingdom79.7
JerusalemIsrael79.6
GuelphCanada79.6
ViennaAustria79.6
HamiltonBermuda79.4
AucklandNew Zealand79.2
Dayton, OHUnited States79.2
GrazAustria79.0
GuildfordUnited Kingdom78.8
Navi MumbaiIndia78.7
MurciaSpain78.5
LinzAustria78.4
Syracuse, NYUnited States78.4
GroningenNetherlands78.3
UtrechtNetherlands77.9
SalzburgAustria77.8
HaifaIsrael77.6
KelownaCanada77.5
GentBelgium77.4
LeidenNetherlands77.2
HaarlemNetherlands77.1
BremenGermany77.1
BournemouthUnited Kingdom76.5
Jeddah (Jiddah)Saudi Arabia76.1
Cape TownSouth Africa75.8
KingstonCanada75.4
Abu DhabiUnited Arab Emirates75.2
VigoSpain75.0
GurgaonIndia74.9
ReykjavikIceland74.8
BrightonUnited Kingdom74.8
MadridSpain74.8
SeoulSouth Korea74.5
Qingdao, ShandongChina74.0
Milton KeynesUnited Kingdom73.9
KitchenerCanada73.9
DurbanSouth Africa73.9
ThiruvananthapuramIndia73.7
YorkUnited Kingdom73.5
Petah TikvaIsrael72.9
NanjingChina72.9
JohannesburgSouth Africa72.2
PragueCzech Republic72.0
GalwayIreland71.9
St.CatharinesCanada71.2
Seville (Sevilla)Spain71.0
BarcelonaSpain70.8
Tel Aviv-YafoIsrael70.2
GuangzhouChina70.1
ValenciaSpain70.0
Zaragoza (Saragossa)Spain69.3
BresciaItaly69.1
ShenzhenChina69.0
Kuwait CityKuwait68.8
InnsbruckAustria68.0
MariborSlovenia68.0
MacaoMacao67.3
TurinItaly67.2
Krakow (Cracow)Poland67.1
San JuanPuerto Rico66.7
PadovaItaly66.6
ThaneIndia66.1
WarsawPoland66.0
PenangMalaysia65.9
MalagaSpain65.8
Hong KongHong Kong65.7
BilbaoSpain65.5
OstravaCzech Republic65.2
BrnoCzech Republic65.1
BariItaly65.0
HangzhouChina65.0
TallinnEstonia64.9
KaunasLithuania64.9
GdanskPoland64.4
NiceFrance64.2
KatowicePoland64.0
Kuala LumpurMalaysia64.0
Santa Cruz de TenerifeSpain63.8
BergamoItaly63.3
Palma de MallorcaSpain63.2
RaipurIndia63.2
VeronaItaly63.1
TriesteItaly63.0
St. John's, Newfoundland and LabradorCanada62.8
ManamaBahrain62.6
BratislavaSlovakia62.6
NoidaIndia62.6
VilniusLithuania62.1
TrevisoItaly62.0
OlomoucCzech Republic61.3
PaphosCyprus61.2
Petaling JayaMalaysia60.9
ParmaItaly60.7
TartuEstonia60.5
DelhiIndia60.4
NicosiaCyprus60.3
LjubljanaSlovenia60.2
LublinPoland60.2
WroclawPoland59.9
KochiIndia59.5
TaipeiTaiwan59.3
BolognaItaly58.9
PalermoItaly58.9
SuzhouChina58.8
JammuIndia58.4
PoznanPoland58.3
WindsorCanada58.0
LodzPoland57.8
YekaterinburgRussia57.8
CagliariItaly57.7
Nanaimo, BCCanada57.5
NagoyaJapan57.4
Las Palmas de Gran CanariaSpain56.7
SharjahUnited Arab Emirates56.7
OsijekCroatia56.4
NaplesItaly56.2
ChengduChina56.0
LimassolCyprus55.8
KaohsiungTaiwan55.5
LarnacaCyprus55.3
SofiaBulgaria55.3
ZagrebCroatia55.1
CataniaItaly54.6
GhaziabadIndia54.6
ThrissurIndia54.4
TimisoaraRomania54.3
BhubaneswarIndia54.2
MilanItaly54.0
PuneIndia53.7
FlorenceItaly53.4
BucharestRomania53.2
BeijingChina53.1
Cluj-NapocaRomania53.1
ShanghaiChina53.0
CoimbraPortugal53.0
CraiovaRomania52.9
RigaLatvia52.8
BudapestHungary52.7
PisaItaly52.1
GenoaItaly51.6
JaipurIndia51.5
GaboroneBotswana51.4
RomeItaly51.3
KosiceSlovakia51.2
HyderabadIndia51.2
SzczecinPoland51.1
FaridabadIndia51.1
QueretaroMexico51.0
AradRomania51.0
GdyniaPoland50.6
Kozhikode (Calicut)India50.0
DebrecenHungary49.9
LeiriaPortugal49.7
MoscowRussia49.6
SzegedHungary49.5
OradeaRomania49.5
AjmanUnited Arab Emirates48.3
LisbonPortugal48.3
SibiuRomania48.3
Kiev (Kyiv)Ukraine48.2
Lucknow (Lakhnau)India48.2
SliemaMalta48.0
MumbaiIndia48.0
MangaloreIndia47.9
PristinaKosovo (Disputed Territory)47.5
PecsHungary47.2
NassauBahamas46.7
FunchalPortugal46.5
ChandigarhIndia46.5
ErnakulamIndia46.5
MysoreIndia46.5
BragaPortugal46.3
VarnaBulgaria46.3
ChennaiIndia46.3
VadodaraIndia46.1
BhopalIndia45.8
PlovdivBulgaria45.6
ConstantaRomania45.4
PortoPortugal44.9
RajkotIndia44.8
SuvaFiji44.7
BrasovRomania44.7
KolkataIndia44.7
IasiRomania44.1
AveiroPortugal43.9
SarajevoBosnia And Herzegovina43.7
RijekaCroatia43.6
BrasiliaBrazil43.5
MonterreyMexico43.0
San JoseCosta Rica42.9
Novi SadSerbia42.7
VisakhapatnamIndia42.7
SplitCroatia42.5
NagpurIndia42.5
BurgasBulgaria42.4
SuratIndia42.0
CascaisPortugal41.2
Astana (Nur-Sultan)Kazakhstan41.0
Saint PetersburgRussia40.8
Port of SpainTrinidad And Tobago40.7
CoimbatoreIndia40.7
NisSerbia40.4
DehradunIndia40.4
AthensGreece40.0
IndoreIndia40.0
Erbil (Irbil)Iraq39.9
GuwahatiIndia39.6
Kota KinabaluMalaysia39.4
AnkaraTurkey39.1
AhmedabadIndia39.1
BaghdadIraq39.0
KanpurIndia38.8
RanchiIndia38.6
NovosibirskRussia38.4
Banja LukaBosnia And Herzegovina38.3
LvivUkraine38.3
CancunMexico38.2
ThessalonikiGreece37.9
LusakaZambia37.5
PatrasGreece37.4
VijayawadaIndia37.2
SkopjeNorth Macedonia37.0
Rostov-na-donuRussia36.9
PatnaIndia36.8
Mexico CityMexico36.7
KrasnodarRussia36.6
GoaIndia36.3
BelgradeSerbia36.1
HeraklionGreece36.0
PodgoricaMontenegro36.0
GuadalajaraMexico36.0
LudhianaIndia35.8
NashikIndia35.3
IzmirTurkey35.2
Nizhny NovgorodRussia35.0
RabatMorocco34.7
La PazBolivia34.6
ChisinauMoldova34.4
CasablancaMorocco34.1
KharkivUkraine34.0
AlmatyKazakhstan33.6
MeridaMexico33.5
KazanRussia33.5
TangierMorocco33.2
Santa CruzBolivia32.9
MedellinColombia32.8
MaduraiIndia32.8
Odessa (Odesa)Ukraine32.7
DniproUkraine32.7
Panama CityPanama32.3
CuritibaBrazil32.3
SantiagoChile32.1
GuayaquilEcuador31.4
AgadirMorocco31.4
TiranaAlbania31.2
MinskBelarus31.2
Porto AlegreBrazil31.2
CaliColombia31.1
Ho Chi Minh CityVietnam30.9
MontevideoUruguay30.8
CuencaEcuador30.8
HanoiVietnam30.7
BucaramangaColombia30.4
MarrakechMorocco30.0
Chiang MaiThailand29.9
BangkokThailand29.8
QuitoEcuador29.7
YerevanArmenia29.7
AmmanJordan29.5
TbilisiGeorgia29.5
IslamabadPakistan29.5
FlorianopolisBrazil29.3
Sao PauloBrazil29.2
NairobiKenya29.2
KarachiPakistan29.2
LimaPeru28.9
IstanbulTurkey28.7
MaleMaldives28.5
BakuAzerbaijan28.0
AgraIndia27.9
AsuncionParaguay27.4
PhuketThailand27.3
BarranquillaColombia27.0
Buenos AiresArgentina26.9
KigaliRwanda26.4
KingstonJamaica26.1
BogotaColombia26.1
PeshawarPakistan26.0
JakartaIndonesia25.3
MultanPakistan25.1
UlaanbaatarMongolia25.0
Guatemala CityGuatemala24.4
CairoEgypt24.4
LahorePakistan24.4
TunisTunisia24.2
DhakaBangladesh23.8
SurabayaIndonesia23.6
PattayaThailand23.3
KathmanduNepal23.2
DakarSenegal23.1
BishkekKyrgyzstan23.1
RawalpindiPakistan22.9
Isfahan (Esfahan)Iran22.8
KabulAfghanistan22.8
MashhadIran22.7
TashkentUzbekistan22.6
Santo DomingoDominican Republic22.2
ManilaPhilippines22.2
San SalvadorEl Salvador21.8
BandungIndonesia21.8
AlgiersAlgeria21.8
AccraGhana21.1
Belo HorizonteBrazil21.0
MakatiPhilippines20.6
AlexandriaEgypt20.3
Quezon CityPhilippines19.7
Rio de JaneiroBrazil18.9
BaguioPhilippines18.7
ColomboSri Lanka18.6
HarareZimbabwe17.6
CebuPhilippines17.6
ParamariboSuriname16.4
CaracasVenezuela15.9
BeirutLebanon15.4
Phnom PenhCambodia14.8
TehranIran14.6
BaliIndonesia14.1
Dar es SalaamTanzania13.5
YogyakartaIndonesia12.2
Addis AbabaEthiopia9.8
KampalaUganda9.8
LagosNigeria8.3
AbidjanIvory Coast6.3
DamascusSyria5.0
HavanaCuba1.6

In contrast, the average consumer in Hamilton, Bermuda has a relatively low purchasing power. Based on the average net salary in the city, consumers can afford about 30% less than people in New York City.

Inflation Continues to Drive Prices Up

Amidst rising inflation and increased prices for consumer goods, cost of living has become top of mind for many people around the world.

Since late 2021, the world has been experiencing a cost of living crisis, largely because of pent-up demand following the COVID-19 pandemic, coupled with supply chain issues and the Russia-Ukraine conflict.

But according to UBS Chief Economist Paul Donovan, we’ve likely seen the worst of it, and inflation is likely to decrease across the globe in the second half of the year.

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Money

Mapped: Which Countries Have the Highest Inflation?

Many countries around the world are facing double or triple-digit inflation. See which countries have the highest inflation rates on this map.

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Mapped: Which Countries Have the Highest Inflation Rate?

This was originally posted on Elements. Sign up to the free mailing list to get beautiful visualizations on natural resource megatrends in your email every week.

Inflation is surging nearly everywhere in 2022.

Geopolitical tensions are triggering high energy costs, while supply-side disruptions are also distorting consumer prices. The end result is that almost half of countries worldwide are seeing double-digit inflation rates or higher.

With new macroeconomic forces shaping the global economy, the above infographic shows countries with the highest inflation rates, using data from Trading Economics.

Double-Digit Inflation in 2022

As the table below shows, countless countries are navigating record-high levels of inflation. Some are even facing triple-digit inflation rates. Globally, Zimbabwe, Lebanon, and Venezuela have the highest rates in the world.

CountryInflation Rate, Year-Over-YearDate
🇿🇼 Zimbabwe269.0%Oct 2022
🇱🇧 Lebanon162.0%Sep 2022
🇻🇪 Venezuela156.0%Oct 2022
🇸🇾 Syria139.0%Aug 2022
🇸🇩 Sudan103.0%Oct 2022
🇦🇷 Argentina88.0%Oct 2022
🇹🇷 Turkey85.5%Oct 2022
🇱🇰 Sri Lanka66.0%Oct 2022
🇮🇷 Iran52.2%Aug 2022
🇸🇷 Suriname41.4%Sep 2022
🇬🇭 Ghana40.4%Oct 2022
🇨🇺 Cuba37.2%Sep 2022
🇱🇦 Laos36.8%Oct 2022
🇲🇩 Moldova34.6%Oct 2022
🇪🇹 Ethiopia31.7%Oct 2022
🇷🇼 Rwanda31.0%Oct 2022
🇭🇹 Haiti30.5%Jul 2022
🇸🇱 Sierra Leone29.1%Sep 2022
🇵🇰 Pakistan26.6%Oct 2022
🇺🇦 Ukraine26.6%Oct 2022
🇲🇼 Malawi25.9%Sep 2022
🇱🇹 Lithuania23.6%Oct 2022
🇪🇪 Estonia22.5%Oct 2022
🇧🇮 Burundi22.1%Oct 2022
🇸🇹 Sao Tome and Principe21.9%Sep 2022
🇱🇻 Latvia21.8%Oct 2022
🇭🇺 Hungary21.1%Oct 2022
🇳🇬 Nigeria21.1%Oct 2022
🇲🇰 Macedonia19.8%Oct 2022
🇲🇲 Myanmar19.4%Jun 2022
🇰🇿 Kazakhstan18.8%Oct 2022
🇵🇱 Poland17.9%Oct 2022
🇧🇬 Bulgaria17.6%Oct 2022
🇹🇲 Turkmenistan17.5%Dec 2021
🇧🇦 Bosnia and Herzegovina17.3%Sep 2022
🇲🇪 Montenegro16.8%Oct 2022
🇦🇴 Angola16.7%Oct 2022
🇧🇫 Burkina Faso16.5%Sep 2022
🇪🇬 Egypt16.2%Oct 2022
🇰🇲 Comoros15.9%Sep 2022
🇰🇬 Kyrgyzstan15.4%Oct 2022
🇷🇴 Romania15.3%Oct 2022
🇧🇾 Belarus15.2%Oct 2022
🇨🇿 Czech Republic15.1%Oct 2022
🇷🇸 Serbia15.0%Oct 2022
🇸🇰 Slovakia14.9%Oct 2022
🇲🇳 Mongolia14.5%Oct 2022
🇳🇱 Netherlands14.3%Oct 2022
🇦🇿 Azerbaijan13.7%Oct 2022
🇦🇫 Afghanistan13.6%Sep 2022
🇬🇲 Gambia13.3%Sep 2022
🇭🇷 Croatia13.2%Oct 2022
🇧🇼 Botswana13.1%Oct 2022
🇸🇳 Senegal13.0%Oct 2022
🇨🇱 Chile12.8%Oct 2022
🇽🇰 Kosovo12.7%Oct 2022
🇷🇺 Russia12.6%Oct 2022
🇬🇳 Guinea12.4%Jul 2022
🇧🇪 Belgium12.3%Oct 2022
🇨🇴 Colombia12.2%Oct 2022
🇺🇿 Uzbekistan12.2%Oct 2022
🇨🇬 Congo12.2%Oct 2022
🇳🇮 Nicaragua12.2%Oct 2022
🇰🇾 Cayman Islands12.1%Jun 2022
🇲🇺 Mauritius11.9%Oct 2022
🇲🇿 Mozambique11.8%Oct 2022
🇮🇹 Italy11.8%Oct 2022
🇲🇱 Mali11.3%Sep 2022
🇲🇷 Mauritania11.3%Sep 2022
🇬🇧 United Kingdom11.1%Oct 2022
🇦🇹 Austria11.0%Oct 2022
🇸🇪 Sweden10.9%Oct 2022
🇺🇬 Uganda10.7%Oct 2022
🇬🇪 Georgia10.6%Oct 2022
🇩🇪 Germany10.4%Oct 2022
🇭🇳 Honduras10.2%Oct 2022
🇩🇰 Denmark10.1%Oct 2022
🇵🇹 Portugal10.1%Oct 2022
🇯🇲 Jamaica9.9%Oct 2022
🇸🇮 Slovenia9.9%Oct 2022
🇬🇹 Guatemala9.7%Oct 2022
🇿🇲 Zambia9.7%Oct 2022
🇰🇪 Kenya9.6%Oct 2022
🇦🇲 Armenia9.5%Oct 2022
🇮🇸 Iceland9.4%Oct 2022
🇲🇬 Madagascar9.3%Aug 2022
🇮🇪 Ireland9.2%Oct 2022
🇱🇸 Lesotho9.2%Sep 2022
🇹🇳 Tunisia9.2%Oct 2022
🇬🇷 Greece9.1%Oct 2022
🇺🇾 Uruguay9.1%Oct 2022
🇨🇷 Costa Rica9.0%Oct 2022
🇧🇩 Bangladesh8.9%Oct 2022
🇨🇾 Cyprus8.8%Oct 2022
🇫🇴 Faroe Islands8.8%Sep 2022
🇩🇿 Algeria8.7%Sep 2022
🇳🇵 Nepal8.6%Sep 2022
🇸🇧 Solomon Islands8.5%Aug 2022
🇲🇽 Mexico8.4%Oct 2022
🇬🇼 Guinea Bissau8.4%Sep 2022
🇦🇱 Albania8.3%Oct 2022
🇧🇧 Barbados8.3%Aug 2022
🇫🇮 Finland8.3%Oct 2022
🇲🇦 Morocco8.3%Sep 2022
🇵🇪 Peru8.3%Oct 2022
🇩🇴 Dominican Republic8.2%Oct 2022
🇨🇻 Cape Verde8.2%Oct 2022
🇵🇾 Paraguay8.1%Oct 2022
🇹🇱 East Timor7.9%Sep 2022
🇹🇬 Togo7.9%Sep 2022
🇵🇭 Philippines7.7%Oct 2022
🇺🇸 U.S.7.7%Oct 2022
🇨🇲 Cameroon7.6%Sep 2022
🇳🇴 Norway7.5%Oct 2022
🇸🇬 Singapore7.5%Sep 2022
🇿🇦 South Africa7.5%Sep 2022
🇸🇻 El Salvador7.5%Oct 2022
🇲🇹 Malta7.4%Oct 2022
🇦🇺 Australia7.3%Sep 2022
🇪🇸 Spain7.3%Oct 2022
🇹🇩 Chad7.2%Sep 2022
🇳🇿 New Zealand7.2%Sep 2022
🇧🇿 Belize7.1%Sep 2022
🇳🇦 Namibia7.1%Oct 2022
🇦🇼 Aruba7.0%Sep 2022
🇨🇦 Canada6.9%Oct 2022
🇱🇺 Luxembourg6.9%Oct 2022
🇸🇴 Somalia6.9%Oct 2022
🇮🇳 India6.8%Oct 2022
🇦🇪 United Arab Emirates6.8%Jun 2022
🇬🇾 Guyana6.5%Sep 2022
🇱🇷 Liberia6.5%Jul 2022
🇧🇷 Brazil6.5%Oct 2022
🇧🇸 Bahamas6.3%Aug 2022
🇨🇮 Ivory Coast6.3%Sep 2022
🇹🇹 Trinidad and Tobago6.3%Aug 2022
🇫🇷 France6.2%Oct 2022
🇩🇯 Djibouti6.1%Sep 2022
🇵🇷 Puerto Rico6.1%Sep 2022
🇧🇹 Bhutan6.1%Sep 2022
🇧🇹 Qatar6.0%Sep 2022
🇹🇭 Thailand6.0%Oct 2022
🇸🇿 Swaziland5.8%Aug 2022
🇮🇩 Indonesia5.7%Oct 2022
🇰🇷 South Korea5.7%Oct 2022
🇹🇯 Tajikistan5.7%Sep 2022
🇵🇬 Papua New Guinea5.5%Jun 2022
🇰🇭 Cambodia5.4%Jul 2022
🇮🇶 Iraq5.3%Sep 2022
🇯🇴 Jordan5.2%Oct 2022
🇫🇯 Fiji5.1%Sep 2022
🇮🇱 Israel5.1%Oct 2022
🇳🇨 New Caledonia5.0%Sep 2022
🇹🇿 Tanzania4.9%Oct 2022
🇧🇲 Bermuda4.5%Jul 2022
🇪🇷 Eritrea4.5%Dec 2021
🇲🇾 Malaysia4.5%Sep 2022
🇭🇰 Hong Kong4.4%Sep 2022
🇵🇸 Palestine4.4%Oct 2022
🇧🇳 Brunei4.3%Sep 2022
🇱🇾 Libya4.3%Sep 2022
🇻🇳 Vietnam4.3%Oct 2022
🇪🇨 Ecuador4.0%Oct 2022
🇧🇭 Bahrain4.0%Sep 2022
🇯🇵 Japan3.7%Oct 2022
🇰🇼 Kuwait3.2%Sep 2022
🇳🇪 Niger3.2%Sep 2022
🇲🇻 Maldives3.1%Sep 2022
🇬🇦 Gabon3.0%Jul 2022
🇱🇮 Liechtenstein3.0%Oct 2022
🇸🇦 Saudi Arabia3.0%Oct 2022
🇨🇭 Switzerland3.0%Oct 2022
🇸🇨 Seychelles2.9%Oct 2022
🇬🇶 Equatorial Guinea2.9%Dec 2021
🇧🇴 Bolivia2.9%Oct 2022
🇹🇼 Taiwan2.7%Oct 2022
🇨🇫 Central African Republic2.7%Dec 2021
🇻🇺 Vanuatu2.7%Mar 2022
🇴🇲 Oman2.4%Sep 2022
🇧🇯 Benin2.1%Oct 2022
🇨🇳 China2.1%Oct 2022
🇵🇦 Panama1.9%Sep 2022
🇲🇴 Macau1.1%Sep 2022
🇸🇸 South Sudan-2.5%Aug 2022

*Inflation rates based on the latest available data.

As price pressures mount, 33 central banks tracked by the Bank of International Settlements (out of a total of 38) have raised interest rates this year. These coordinated rate hikes are the largest in two decades, representing an end to an era of rock-bottom interest rates.

Going into 2023, central banks could continue this shift towards hawkish policies as inflation remains aggressively high.

The Role of Energy Prices

Driven by the war in Ukraine, energy inflation is pushing up the cost of living around the world.

Since October 2020, an index of global energy prices—made up of crude oil, natural gas, coal, and propane—has increased drastically.

Double-Digit Inflation

Compared to the 2021 average, natural gas prices in Europe are up sixfold. Real European household electricity prices are up 78% and gas prices have climbed even more, at 144% compared to 20-year averages.

Amid global competition for liquefied natural gas supplies, price pressures are likely to stay high, even though they have fallen recently. Other harmful consequences of the energy shock include price volatility, economic strain, and energy shortages.

“The world is in the midst of the first truly global energy crisis, with impacts that will be felt for years to come”.

-Fatih Birol, executive director of the IEA

Double-Digit Inflation: Will it Last?

If history is an example, taming rising prices could take at least a few years yet.

Take the sky-high inflation of the 1980s. Italy, which managed to combat inflation faster than most countries, brought down inflation from 22% in 1980 to 4% in 1986.

If global inflation rates, which hover around 9.8% in 2022, were to follow this course, it would take at least until 2025 for levels to reach the 2% target.

It’s worth noting that inflation was also highly volatile over this decade. Consider how inflation fell across much of the rich world by 1981 but shot up again in 1987 amid higher energy prices. Federal Reserve chair Jerome Powell spoke to the volatility of inflation at their November meeting, indicating that high inflation has a chance of following a period of low inflation.

While the Federal Reserve projects U.S. inflation to fall closer to its 2% target by 2024, the road ahead could still get a lot bumpier between now and then.

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Misc

Visualized: The Many Shapes of Bacteria

We introduce the visual diversity of bacteria and illustrate how they are categorized by appearance—from a single cell to an entire colony.

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Invisible Diversity: The Many Shapes of Bacteria

Bacteria are amazing.

They were the first form of life to appear on Earth almost 3.8 billion years ago.

They make up the second most abundant lifeform, only outweighed by plants.

And most interesting of all: they exist in practically every environment on our planet, including areas where no other lifeforms can survive. As a result, bacteria exhibit a wide variety of appearances, behaviors, and applications similar to the lifeforms we see in our everyday lives.

The incredible diversity of bacteria goes underappreciated simply because they are invisible to the naked eye. Here, we illustrate how researchers classify these creatures on the basis of appearance, giving you a glimpse into this microscopic world.

A Life of Culture

Though bacteria may look similar to other microorganisms like fungi or plankton, they are entirely unique on a microscopic and genetic level.

Bacteria make up one of the three main domains of life. All life shares its earliest ancestor with this group of microbes, alongside two other domains: the Archaea and the Eukarya.

Archaea are very similar to bacteria, but have different contents making up their cell walls.

Eukarya largely consists of complex, multicellular life, like fungi, plants, and animals. Bacteria are similar to its single-celled members because all bacteria are also unicellular. However, while all Eukarya have nuclear membranes that store genetic material, bacteria do not.

Bacteria have their genetic material free-floating within their cellular bodies. This impacts how their genes are encoded, how proteins are synthesized, and how they reproduce. For example, bacteria do not reproduce sexually. Instead, they reproduce on their own.

Bacteria undergo a process called binary fission, where any one cell divides into two identical cells, and so on. Fission occurs quickly. In minutes, populations can double rapidly, eventually forming a community of genetically identical microbes called a colony.

Colonies can be visible to the human eye and can take on a variety of different shapes, textures, sizes, colors, and behaviors. You might be familiar with some of these:

Superstars of a Tiny World

The following are some interesting bacterial species, some of which you may be familiar with:

Epulopiscium spp

This species is unusually large, ranging from 200-700 micrometers in length. They are also incredible picky, living only within the guts of sturgeon, a type of large fish.

Deinococcus radiodurans

D. radiodurans is a coccus-shaped species that can withstand 1,500 times the dose of radiation that a human can.

Escherichia coli

Despite being known famously for poisoning food and agriculture spaces from time to time, not all E.coli species are dangerous.

Desulforudis audaxviator

Down in the depths of a South African gold mine, this species thrives without oxygen, sunlight, or friends—it is the only living species in its ecosystem. It survives eating minerals in the surrounding rock.

Helicobacter pylori

Known for causing stomach ulcers, this spiral-shaped species has also been associated with many cancers that impact the lymphoid tissue.

Planococcus halocryophillus

Most living things cease to survive in cold temperatures, but P. halocryophillus thrives in permafrost in the High Arctic where temperatures can drop below -25°C/-12°F.

‘Bact’ to the Future

Despite their microscopic size, the contributions bacteria make to our daily lives are enormous. Researchers everyday are using them to study new environments, create new drug therapies, and even build new materials.

Scientists can profile the diversity of species living in a habitat by extracting DNA from an environmental sample. Known as metagenomics, this field of genetics commonly studies bacterial populations.

In oxygen-free habitats, bacteria continuously find alternative sources of energy. Some have even evolved to eat plastic or metal that have been discarded in the ocean.

The healthcare industry uses bacteria to help create antibiotics, vaccines, and other metabolic products. They also play a major role in a new line of self-building materials, which include “self-healing” concrete and “living bricks”.

Those are just a few of the many examples in which bacteria impact our daily lives. Although they are invisible, without them, our world would undoubtedly look like a much different place.

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