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Visualizing All of China’s Trade Partners

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China's trade partners by import and export destinations.

Visualizing All of China’s Trade Partners

China stands as a formidable player in the global trade arena, wielding its influence as the world’s largest goods exporter.

With a complex network of trade partnerships spanning more than 200 countries, regions, and territories, the world’s second-largest economy has significant economic relationships with both allies and adversaries.

By using 2022 trade data from China’s General Administration of Customs, this visualization from Truman Du breaks down the nation’s top trading partners through imports and exports by destination.

China’s Imports and Exports by Country in 2022

Over the course of 2022, China saw exports totaling $3.57 trillion and imports totaling $2.71 trillion, giving it a massive trade surplus of $857 billion.

ℹ️ Note: For products manufactured in two or more countries, China records the place where the last substantial working or processing occurred as the place of origin, including China itself.
CountryImports (2022 USD)Exports (2022 USD)Balance (2022 USD)
🇺🇸 United States$177.7B$578.8B+$401.1B
🇭🇰 Hong Kong$7.8B$295.2B+$287.4B
🇳🇱 Netherlands$12.5B$117.4B+$104.9B
🇮🇳 India$17.5B$117.7B+$100.3B
🇲🇽 Mexico$17.4B$77.3B+$59.8B
🇬🇧 United Kingdom$21.8B$81.0B+$59.2B
🇻🇳 Vietnam$88.0B$144.4B+$56.4B
🇸🇬 Singapore$33.9B$80.0B+$46.1B
🇵🇭 Philippines$23.0B$63.9B+$40.9B
🇵🇱 Poland$5.1B$38.0B+$32.9B
🇪🇸 Spain$9.8B$41.6B+$31.9B
🇹🇷 Türkiye$4.5B$33.9B+$29.4B
🇧🇪 Belgium$8.7B$35.5B+$26.7B
🇧🇩 Bangladesh$1.0B$26.7B+$25.7B
🇮🇹 Italy$27.0B$50.5B+$23.6B
🇹🇭 Thailand$56.5B$77.7B+$21.1B
🇳🇬 Nigeria$1.6B$22.1B+$20.5B
🇵🇰 Pakistan$3.4B$22.9B+$19.5B
🇪🇬 Egypt$1.0B$17.1B+$16.0B
🇰🇬 Kyrgyzstan$0.1B$15.3B+$15.3B
🇨🇿 Czechia$5.4B$18.2B+$12.8B
🇰🇭 Cambodia$1.8B$14.0B+$12.2B
🇬🇷 Greece$0.8B$12.9B+$12.1B
🇵🇦 Panama$1.2B$12.6B+$11.4B
🇨🇦 Canada$42.3B$53.4B+$11.1B
🇫🇷 France$35.6B$45.5B+$9.9B
🇨🇴 Colombia$7.0B$15.5B+$8.5B
🇦🇪 United Arab Emirates$45.4B$53.5B+$8.1B
🇰🇪 Kenya$0.3B$8.2B+$7.9B
🇱🇷 Liberia$0.0B$7.5B+$7.5B
🇮🇱 Israel$9.0B$16.4B+$7.4B
🇹🇿 Tanzania$0.5B$7.7B+$7.1B
🇸🇮 Slovenia$0.6B$6.8B+$6.3B
🇬🇭 Ghana$2.3B$7.8B+$5.5B
🇭🇺 Hungary$5.0B$10.5B+$5.4B
🇺🇿 Uzbekistan$2.3B$7.4B+$5.1B
🇩🇿 Algeria$1.1B$6.2B+$5.1B
🇯🇴 Jordan$0.7B$5.7B+$4.9B
🇲🇦 Morocco$0.9B$5.7B+$4.8B
🇩🇪 Germany$111.4B$115.9B+$4.5B
🇩🇰 Denmark$5.7B$10.2B+$4.4B
🇷🇴 Romania$3.1B$7.4B+$4.3B
🇦🇷 Argentina$8.6B$12.7B+$4.1B
🇲🇴 Macao$0.1B$4.2B+$4.1B
🇬🇹 Guatemala$0.6B$4.3B+$3.8B
🇩🇴 Dominican Republic$0.5B$4.3B+$3.7B
🇸🇳 Senegal$0.3B$4.0B+$3.7B
🇲🇭 Marshall Islands$0.0B$3.5B+$3.5B
🇱🇰 Sri Lanka$0.5B$3.7B+$3.2B
🇩🇯 Djibouti$0.1B$3.2B+$3.1B
🇮🇷 Iran$6.4B$9.4B+$3.0B
🇹🇬 Togo$0.2B$3.1B+$2.9B
🇵🇹 Portugal$3.0B$6.0B+$2.9B
🇨🇮 Cote d'Ivoire$1.0B$3.5B+$2.5B
🇨🇲 Cameroon$0.7B$3.1B+$2.5B
🇱🇧 Lebanon$0.1B$2.5B+$2.4B
🇸🇪 Sweden$9.1B$11.4B+$2.2B
🇻🇪 Venezuela$0.8B$3.0B+$2.1B
🇾🇪 Yemen$0.6B$2.8B+$2.1B
🇭🇷 Croatia$0.2B$2.3B+$2.1B
🇲🇿 Mozambique$1.3B$3.2B+$1.9B
🇲🇲 Myanmar$11.5B$13.4B+$1.9B
🇹🇯 Tajikistan$0.4B$2.2B+$1.8B
🇵🇾 Paraguay$0.1B$1.9B+$1.8B
🇪🇹 Ethiopia$0.5B$2.2B+$1.8B
🇱🇹 Lithuania$0.1B$1.8B+$1.7B
🇳🇵 Nepal$0.0B$1.6B+$1.6B
🇹🇳 Tunisia$0.3B$1.9B+$1.6B
🇧🇬 Bulgaria$1.3B$2.8B+$1.6B
🇭🇳 Honduras$0.0B$1.6B+$1.5B
🇧🇭 Bahrain$0.3B$1.8B+$1.5B
🇰🇿 Kazakhstan$14.8B$16.3B+$1.5B
🇧🇾 Belarus$1.8B$3.2B+$1.4B
🇧🇯 Benin$0.3B$1.7B+$1.4B
🇸🇻 El Salvador$0.2B$1.7B+$1.4B
🇲🇹 Malta$0.6B$2.0B+$1.4B
🇸🇩 Sudan$0.9B$2.0B+$1.1B
🇨🇾 Cyprus$0.0B$1.2B+$1.1B
🇬🇪 Georgia$0.1B$1.2B+$1.1B
🇸🇴 Somalia$0.0B$1.0B+$1.0B
🇦🇿 Azerbaijan$0.1B$1.1B+$1.0B
🇯🇲 Jamaica$0.0B$1.0B+$1.0B
🇺🇬 Uganda$0.1B$1.1B+$1.0B
🇲🇺 Mauritius$0.0B$1.0B+$0.9B
🇷🇸 Serbia$1.4B$2.2B+$0.8B
🇲🇬 Madagascar$0.6B$1.4B+$0.8B
🇰🇵 Korea, DPR$0.1B$0.8B+$0.7B
🇳🇮 Nicaragua$0.0B$0.7B+$0.7B
🇪🇪 Estonia$0.3B$0.9B+$0.7B
🇱🇻 Latvia$0.4B$1.0B+$0.6B
🇭🇹 Haiti$0.0B$0.6B+$0.6B
🇦🇱 Albania$0.2B$0.7B+$0.5B
🇦🇫 Afghanistan$0.0B$0.6B+$0.5B
🇲🇱 Mali$0.1B$0.6B+$0.5B
🇫🇯 Fiji$0.0B$0.5B+$0.5B
🇲🇻 Maldives$0.0B$0.4B+$0.4B
🇸🇾 Syria$0.0B$0.4B+$0.4B
🇬🇲 Gambia$0.0B$0.4B+$0.4B
🇧🇫 Burkina Faso$0.1B$0.5B+$0.4B
🇧🇸 Bahamas$0.0B$0.4B+$0.4B
🇳🇪 Niger$0.3B$0.7B+$0.4B
🇨🇷 Costa Rica$2.0B$2.4B+$0.4B
🇷🇼 Rwanda$0.1B$0.4B+$0.3B
🇧🇿 Belize$0.0B$0.3B+$0.3B
🇸🇷 Suriname$0.0B$0.3B+$0.3B
🇲🇼 Malawi$0.0B$0.3B+$0.3B
🇷🇪 Réunion$0.0B$0.2B+$0.2B
🇱🇺 Luxembourg$0.3B$0.5B+$0.2B
🇧🇴 Bolivia$0.9B$1.1B+$0.2B
🇲🇪 Montenegro$0.0B$0.2B+$0.2B
🇧🇹 Bhutan$0.0B$0.2B+$0.2B
🇵🇸 Palestine$0.0B$0.2B+$0.2B
🇵🇫 French Polynesia$0.0B$0.2B+$0.1B
🇹🇱 Timor-Leste$0.1B$0.3B+$0.1B
🇧🇧 Barbados$0.0B$0.2B+$0.1B
🇲🇩 Moldova$0.1B$0.2B+$0.1B
🇼🇸 Samoa$0.0B$0.1B+$0.1B
🇮🇸 Iceland$0.2B$0.3B+$0.1B
🇻🇬 British Virgin Islands$0.0B$0.1B+$0.1B
🇧🇮 Burundi$0.0B$0.1B+$0.1B
🌏 Other Oceanian Territories$0.0B$0.1B+$0.1B
🇦🇬 Antigua and Barbuda$0.0B$0.1B+$0.1B
🇸🇨 Seychelles$0.0B$0.1B+$0.1B
🇨🇻 Cabo Verde$0.0B$0.1B+$0.1B
🇻🇺 Vanuatu$0.0B$0.1B+$0.1B
🇧🇲 Bermuda$0.0B$0.1B+$0.1B
🇸🇿 Eswatini$0.0B$0.1B+$0.1B
🇬🇵 Guadeloupe$0.0B$0.1B+$0.1B
🇰🇲 Comoros$0.0B$0.1B+$0.1B
🇦🇼 Aruba$0.0B$0.1B+$0.1B
🇧🇦 Bosnia and Herzegovina$0.1B$0.2B+$0.1B
🇨🇼 Curaçao$0.0B$0.1B+$0.1B
🇾🇹 Mayotte$0.0B$0.1B+$0.1B
🇬🇼 Guinea-Bissau$0.0B$0.1B+$0.1B
🇹🇴 Tonga$0.0B$0.1B+$0.1B
🇲🇰 North Macedonia$0.2B$0.2B+$0.1B
🇰🇾 Cayman Islands$0.0B$0.1B+$0.1B
🌎 Other Latin American Territories$0.0B$0.1B+$0.1B
🇵🇼 Palau$0.0B$0.1B+$0.1B
🇲🇶 Martinique$0.0B$0.0B+$0.0B
🇰🇮 Kiribati$0.0B$0.0B+$0.0B
🇬🇫 French Guiana$0.0B$0.0B+$0.0B
🇱🇸 Lesotho$0.0B$0.1B+$0.0B
🇱🇨 Saint Lucia$0.0B$0.0B+$0.0B
🇩🇲 Dominica$0.0B$0.0B+$0.0B
🇹🇻 Tuvalu$0.0B$0.0B+$0.0B
🇫🇲 Federated States of Micronesia$0.0B$0.0B+$0.0B
🇨🇫 Central African Republic$0.0B$0.1B+$0.0B
🇧🇶 Bonaire, Sint Eustatius, and Saba$0.0B$0.0B+$0.0B
🇬🇩 Grenada$0.0B$0.0B+$0.0B
🇦🇩 Andorra$0.0B$0.0B+$0.0B
🇻🇨 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines$0.0B$0.0B+$0.0B
🇬🇮 Gibraltar$0.0B$0.0B+$0.0B
🇸🇹 Sao Tome and Principe$0.0B$0.0B+$0.0B
🌍 Other European Territories$0.0B$0.0B+$0.0B
🇰🇳 Saint Kitts and Nevis$0.0B$0.0B+$0.0B
🇳🇷 Nauru$0.0B$0.0B+$0.0B
🇨🇰 Cook Islands$0.0B$0.0B+$0.0B
🇹🇨 Turks and Caicos Islands$0.0B$0.0B+$0.0B
🇲🇫 Saint Martin$0.0B$0.0B+$0.0B
🌏 Other North American Territories$0.0B$0.0B+$0.0B
🇸🇲 San Marino$0.0B$0.0B+$0.0B
🌍 Other African Territories$0.0B$0.0B+$0.0B
🇮🇨 Canary Islands$0.0B$0.0B+$0.0B
🇼🇫 Wallis and Futuna$0.0B$0.0B+$0.0B
🇳🇫 Norfolk Island$0.0B$0.0B+$0.0B
🇪🇭 Western Sahara$0.0B$0.0B+$0.0B
🌏 Other Asian Territories$0.0B$0.0B+$0.0B
🇲🇸 Montserrat$0.0B$0.0B+$0.0B
🇪🇺 Ceuta$0.0B$0.0B+$0.0B
🇻🇦 Holy See$0.0B$0.0B+$0.0B
🇪🇺 Melilla$0.0B$0.0B+$0.0B
🇵🇲 Saint Pierre and Miquelon$0.0B$0.0B+$0.0B
🇧🇶 Bonaire$0.0B$0.0B+$0.0B
🇲🇨 Monaco$0.0B$0.0B-$0.0B
🇨🇺 Cuba$0.5B$0.4B-$0.0B
🇳🇦 Namibia$0.6B$0.6B-$0.0B
🇸🇸 South Sudan$0.2B$0.2B-$-0.1B
🇸🇧 Solomon Islands$0.3B$0.2B-$-0.1B
🇫🇴 Faroe Islands$0.1B$0.0B-$-0.1B
🇱🇮 Liechtenstein$0.2B$0.1B-$-0.1B
🇧🇼 Botswana$0.4B$0.2B-$-0.2B
🇿🇼 Zimbabwe$1.3B$1.1B-$-0.2B
🇸🇱 Sierra Leone$0.8B$0.6B-$-0.2B
🇹🇹 Trinidad and Tobago$0.8B$0.5B-$-0.2B
🇲🇷 Mauritania$1.2B$0.9B-$-0.2B
🇦🇲 Armenia$0.8B$0.5B-$-0.3B
🇪🇷 Eritrea$0.5B$0.1B-$-0.3B
🇵🇷 Puerto Rico$1.3B$1.0B-$-0.3B
🇬🇱 Greenland$0.4B$0.0B-$-0.4B
🇪🇨 Ecuador$6.8B$6.3B-$-0.6B
🇱🇾 Libya$2.9B$2.4B-$-0.6B
🇫🇮 Finland$5.3B$4.5B-$-0.7B
🇬🇾 Guyana$1.3B$0.6B-$-0.7B
🇹🇩 Chad$1.1B$0.3B-$-0.8B
🇺🇦 Ukraine$4.3B$3.3B-$-1.1B
🇱🇦 Laos$3.4B$2.3B-$-1.1B
🇬🇶 Equatorial Guinea$1.5B$0.2B-$-1.3B
🌏 Unknown Countries (Territories)$1.4B$0.0B-$-1.4B
🇧🇳 Brunei$2.2B$0.8B-$-1.4B
🇺🇾 Uruguay$4.5B$3.0B-$-1.5B
🇳🇨 New Caledonia$1.9B$0.2B-$-1.7B
🇬🇳 Guinea$4.5B$2.3B-$-2.3B
🇵🇬 Papua New Guinea$3.8B$1.4B-$-2.4B
🇳🇴 Norway$8.0B$5.2B-$-2.8B
🇦🇹 Austria$8.2B$5.1B-$-3.1B
🇸🇰 Slovakia$7.7B$4.4B-$-3.3B
🇬🇦 Gabon$3.9B$0.6B-$-3.4B
🇨🇬 Congo$5.6B$1.0B-$-4.6B
🇿🇲 Zambia$5.7B$1.0B-$-4.8B
🇲🇳 Mongolia$9.3B$2.9B-$-6.5B
🇳🇿 New Zealand$16.0B$9.1B-$-6.8B
🇮🇩 Indonesia$77.9B$70.9B-$-7.0B
🇿🇦 South Africa$32.4B$24.0B-$-8.4B
🇹🇲 Turkmenistan$10.3B$0.9B-$-9.5B
🇵🇪 Peru$24.1B$13.4B-$-10.7B
🇨🇩 Democratic Republic of Congo$16.6B$5.1B-$-11.5B
🇯🇵 Japan$184.4B$172.5B-$-11.9B
🇮🇪 Ireland$18.1B$5.7B-$-12.4B
🇲🇾 Malaysia$109.9B$92.2B-$-17.7B
🇶🇦 Qatar$22.6B$3.9B-$-18.6B
🇦🇴 Angola$23.2B$4.0B-$-19.2B
🇰🇼 Kuwait$26.5B$4.9B-$-21.6B
🇨🇱 Chile$44.4B$22.4B-$-22.0B
🇮🇶 Iraq$39.4B$13.8B-$-25.6B
🇴🇲 Oman$36.2B$4.2B-$-32.1B
🇰🇷 Republic of Korea$199.1B$161.3B-$-37.8B
🇷🇺 Russia$114.4B$75.6B-$-38.7B
🇸🇦 Saudi Arabia$78.1B$37.7B-$-40.4B
🇨🇭 Switzerland$49.7B$7.6B-$-42.1B
🇧🇷 Brazil$109.4B$61.8B-$-47.6B
🇦🇺 Australia$142.1B$78.5B-$-63.6B
🇨🇳 China$121.9BN/A-$-121.9B
🇹🇼 Taiwan$237.2B$81.5B-$-155.8B

China had individual trade surpluses with the overwhelming majority of its trade partners: 174 of the 234 countries and territories listed.

These trade surpluses are especially visible in China’s trade relationships with many of the world’s largest economies, including the U.S. and India, with $401.1 billion and $100.3 billion surpluses respectively.

Meanwhile, a good sum of the country’s trade deficits are with major Asian economies. Its largest deficit is with Taiwan, primarily coming from integrated circuit imports. China also has deficits with Japan (-$11.9 billion) and South Korea (-$37.8 billion), the region’s second and fourth-largest economies respectively, largely due to electronics and machinery imports.

The country’s other trade deficits stem from fulfilling strategic needs. For example, China has deficits with oil-producing countries like Russia and Saudi Arabia. It also has a trade deficit with Australia, a key supplier of raw goods such as iron, gold, lithium, and liquefied petroleum gas.

China’s Evolving Trade Partner Relationships

China’s trade relationships extend far beyond just economic considerations; they reflect historical, geopolitical, and strategic factors as well.

Taiwan’s major role in the semiconductor market, for example, makes it both a valuable trade partner and a contentious rival. China considers Taiwan a part of its territory, while Taiwan operates as a separate, self-governed entity.

Likewise, China’s increasing investments in infrastructure across parts of Asia and Africa are starting to reflect growing trade balances with developing countries set to become major trade partners in the future.

As the Chinese economy evolves (and potentially weakens), its relationships with both allies and potential enemies may only grow more complex.

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This article was published as a part of Visual Capitalist's Creator Program, which features data-driven visuals from some of our favorite Creators around the world.

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Politics

How Do Democrats and Republicans Feel About Certain U.S. Industries?

A survey looked at U.S. industry favorability across political lines, showing where Democrats and Republicans are divided over the economy.

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A cropped chart with the percentage of Democrats and Republicans that found specific U.S. industries "favorable."

Industry Favorability, by Political Party

This was originally posted on our Voronoi app. Download the app for free on iOS or Android and discover incredible data-driven charts from a variety of trusted sources.

Much and more has been written, in the last decade particularly, about the U.S. political sphere becoming increasingly polarized. The two main parties—Democrats and Republicans—have clashed over how to run the economy, as well as on key social issues.

Perhaps unsurprisingly then, Democrat and Republican voters are also divided on various U.S. industries, per a YouGov poll conducted in 2022.

Between November 7-9th of that year, the market research firm polled 1,000 adult Americans, (sampled to represent prevailing demographic, racial, and political-party-affiliation trends in the country) on their opinions on 39 industries. They asked:

“Generally speaking, do you have a favorable or unfavorable opinion of the following industry?” — YouGov Poll.

In this chart we visualize the percentage with a favorable view of an industry minus those with unfavorable view, categorized by current voter status.

A higher percentage means more Democrats or Republicans rated the industry as favorable, and vice-versa. Negative percentages mean more respondents responded unfavorably.

Democrats vs. Republicans on Industry Favorability

From a glance, it’s immediately noticeable that quite a few industries have divided Democrats and Republics quite severely.

For example, of the sampled Democrats, a net 45%, found Higher Education “favorable.” This is compared to 0% on the Republican side, which means an equal number found the industry favorable and unfavorable.

Here’s the full list of net favorable responses from Democrats and Republicans per industry.

IndustryDemocrat Net
Favorability
Republican Net
Favorability
Agriculture44%55%
Trucking27%55%
Restaurant53%54%
Manufacturing27%53%
Construction23%49%
Dairy45%46%
Higher education45%0%
Technology44%36%
Food manufacturing15%37%
Transportation27%37%
Railroad37%35%
Mining-3%36%
Automotive19%36%
Grocery35%22%
Hotels30%35%
Textiles24%34%
Entertainment34%-17%
Shipping24%33%
Retail31%31%
Book publishing30%29%
Alcohol23%16%
Television22%3%
Waste management15%22%
Education services21%-16%
Wireless carriers19%19%
Broadcasting17%-30%
News media17%-57%
Airlines11%3%
Oil and gas-28%7%
Real-estate-2%6%
Utilities2%6%
Health care3%4%
Fashion4%-6%
Cable-12%3%
Finance2%-2%
Professional sports1%-2%
Insurance-12%-14%
Pharmaceutical-18%-14%
Tobacco-44%-27%

The other few immediately noticeable disparities in favorability include:

  • Mining and Oil and Gas, (more Republicans in favor),
  • Entertainment, Education Services, and News Media (more Democrats in favor).

Tellingly, the larger social and political concerns at play are influencing Democrat and Republican opinions about these parts of the economy.

For example Pew Research pointed out Republicans are dissatisfied with universities for a number of reasons: worries about constraints on free speech, campus “culture wars,” and professors bringing their politics into the classroom.

In contrast, Democrats’ criticisms of higher education revolved around tuition costs and the quality of education offered.

On a more recent note, Citadel CEO Ken Griffin, a big Harvard donor, pulled funding after criticizing universities for educating “whiny snowflakes.” In October, donors to the University of Pennsylvania withdrew their support, upset with the university’s response to the October 7th attacks and subsequent war in Gaza.

Meanwhile, the reasons for differences over media favorability are more obvious. Commentators say being “anti-media” is now part of the larger Republican leadership identity, and in turn, is trickling down to their voters. Pew Research also found that Republicans are less likely to trust the news if it comes from a “mainstream” source.

But these are industries that are already adjacent to the larger political sphere. What about the others?

U.S. Politics and the Climate Crisis

The disparity over how the Oil & Gas and Mining industries are viewed is a reflection, again, of American politics and the partisan divide around the climate crisis and whether there’s a noticeable impact from human activity.

Both industries contribute heavily to carbon emissions, and Democrat lawmakers have previously urged the Biden transition to start planning for the end of fossil-fuel reliance.

Meanwhile, former President Trump, for example, has previously called global warming “a hoax” but later reversed course, clarifying that he didn’t know if it was “man-made.”

When removing the climate context, and related environmental degradation, both industries usually pay high wages and produce materials critical to many other parts of the economy, including the strategic metals needed for the energy transition.

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