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Charted: How Latin America Drove U.S. Immigration from 1970–2019

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latam immigration driving U.S. growth

Charted: How LatAm Drove U.S. Immigration from 1970–2019

LatAm, otherwise known as Latin America, has been one of the biggest sources of immigration to the U.S. over the last one hundred years.

Since the 1970s, the region has driven the second wave of U.S. immigration and helped shape the country’s future immeasurably. This is especially clear when looking at Census data listing where people were born.

This chart from Latinometrics looks at the history of U.S. immigration considering both documented and undocumented immigration since 1850.

Historical U.S. Immigration

For most of its early history, Europeans drove immigration to the United States.

The UK, Ireland, and Germany were especially big sources of American immigrants well into the 20th century. But around the 1960-70s this began to shift, with LatAm countries marking the next wave of U.S. immigration.

ℹ️ LatAm includes all Central American, Caribbean, and South American countries.

Here’s a sample of the history of U.S. immigration using select years and regions:

Region/Country1850 190019602000201020152019
🇲🇽 Mexico13.3K 103.4K575.9K9.2M11.7M11.6M10.9M
Rest of Asia377 36.7K379.0K6.2M7.9M8.8M9.2M
Rest of Latin America1.7K19.7K217.6K4.8M6.9M7.5M8.5M
Caribbean5.8K14.4K114.8K2.1M2.6M3.0M3.1M
Rest of Europe49.5K2.8M3.7M2.9M3.0M3.0M3.0M
🇮🇳 India-2.0K12.3K1.0M1.8M2.4M2.7M
Africa5512.5K35.4K881.3K1.6M2.1M2.5M
🇨🇳 China, excluding Hong Kong and Taiwan75881.5K99.7K988.9K1.6M2.1M2.3M
🇨🇦 Canada14.8K1.2M952.5K820.8K798.6K830.6K797.2K
🇬🇧 United Kingdom1.3M2.8M1.2M677.8K669.8K683.5K677.9K
🇩🇪 Germany583.8K2.7M989.8K706.7K604.6K585.3K537.7K
🇮🇹 Italy3.7K484.0K1.3M473.3K365.0K352.5K314.9K
Oceania5888.8K34.7K168.0K216.7K238.7K300.2K
🇫🇷 France54.1K104.2K111.6K151.2K148.0K173.6K171.5K
Share of U.S. Population Made up of Immigrants9.8%13.3%5.7%11.0%12.9%13.5%13.7%

LatAm Immigration

As of 2019, 22.6 million foreign-born people in the U.S. were originally from LatAm countries, with 10.9 million from Mexico alone.

Additionally, in 2021 Mexican citizens received the highest number of U.S. immigrant visas in the world at almost 40,600. Immigrant visas are the first step in the process to U.S. green cards and citizenship.

And though Asian countries are beginning to make up the majority of U.S. immigrant applicants and permits, other LatAm countries also ranked high in issued permits in 2021:

  • 🇩🇴 Dominican Republic: 17.9K
  • 🇸🇻 El Salvador: 7.8K
  • 🇪🇨 Ecuador: 5.1K
  • 🇨🇴 Colombia: 4.8K

Furthermore, there is also undocumented immigration to consider. According to 2019 figures from Brookings, there are between 10.5-12 million undocumented migrants living in the U.S.—making up just over 3% of the population.

Here’s a look at the top five countries in terms of undocumented immigration to the U.S. in 2019, most of which are LatAm countries:

CountryNumber of Immigrants% of Total Undocumented Population
🇲🇽 Mexico5,313,00048%
🇸🇻 El Salvador741,000 7%
🇬🇹 Guatemala724,0007%
🇮🇳 India553,0005%
🇭🇳 Honduras490,0004%

The Future of U.S. Immigration

In the last few years, more and more Asian countries are seeing their citizens leave for the United States. In addition, the knock-on effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and the Russo-Ukrainian War (as well as other global events and crises) could shift U.S. immigration even further away from LatAm.

Currently, the U.S. is only permitting small numbers of legal immigrants to enter the country each year, numbering in only the hundreds of thousands. But as birth rates decline, the growth in the foreign-born population will continue to be a much-discussed and important topic for the country’s demographics in the coming years.

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This article was published as a part of Visual Capitalist's Creator Program, which features data-driven visuals from some of our favorite Creators around the world.

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Breaking Down $1.3T in NATO Defense Spending

The U.S. accounts for 68% of NATO’s total combined defense spending.

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Voronoi graphic breaking down $1.3T in NATO defense spending in 2023.

Breaking down $1.3T in NATO Defense Spending

This was originally posted on our Voronoi app. Download the app for free on iOS or Android and discover incredible data-driven charts from a variety of trusted sources.

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) is a political and military alliance comprising 31 countries. Its primary purpose is to facilitate cooperation among member nations, ensuring mutual defense and security.

This graphic breaks down the expected defense expenditures of NATO members in 2023, using data from NATO and based on current prices and exchange rates.

U.S. Dominance of NATO’s Defense Spending

NATO defines defense expenditure as payments made by a national government, excluding regional, local, and municipal authorities, specifically to fulfill the requirements of its armed forces. It requires members to spend at least 2% of its GDP on defense.

A major component of defense expenditure includes payments for active armed forces personnel as well as retired pensioners. Expenditures for stockpiling war reserves of military equipment or supplies are also included. Additionally, it encompasses expenditures for peacekeeping and humanitarian operations, as well as the destruction of weapons.

The U.S. is by far the largest contributor to NATO’s budget. In 2023, the country accounted for $860 billion spent by the organization, representing 68% of the total expenditure. This amount is over 10 times more than that of the second-placed country, Germany.

Country2023 Defense Spending (USD, Millions)*
🇺🇸 United States$860,000
🇩🇪 Germany$68,080
🇬🇧 United Kingdom$65,763
🇫🇷 France$56,649
🇮🇹 Italy$31,585
🇵🇱 Poland$29,105
🇨🇦 Canada$28,950
🇪🇸 Spain$19,179
🇳🇱 Netherlands$16,741
🇹🇷 Türkiye$15,842
🇳🇴 Norway$8,814
🇷🇴 Romania$8,481
🇫🇮 Finland$7,325
🇬🇷 Greece$7,125
🇧🇪 Belgium$7,076
🇩🇰 Denmark$6,775
🇭🇺 Hungary$5,036
🇨🇿 Czechia$5,033
🇵🇹 Portugal$4,167
🌐 Other$12,400

*Expected spending in 2023, based on July 2023 data from NATO.

U.S. defense spending, within the context of NATO, aims to support European allies, deter adversaries like Russia, and gain access to additional military resources, among other objectives.

In 2018, then-President Trump sent letters to NATO allies demanding that they spend more on defense to meet the 2% minimum target. In recent years, however, the U.S. has increased its spending, experiencing a 6% jump compared to 2021.

The Future of NATO

After two years since Russia’s full-scale invasion of Ukraine, NATO has mostly maintained its unity against Moscow.

The alliance has expanded with Finland’s membership in 2023 and will likely include Sweden soon.

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