Infographic: Visualizing Copper's Global Supply Chain
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Visualizing Copper’s Global Supply Chain

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Copper is all around us: in our homes, electronic devices, and transportation.

But before copper ends up in these products and technologies, the industry must mine, refine and transport this copper all over the globe.

Copper’s Supply Chain

This infographic comes to us from Trilogy Metals and it outlines copper’s supply chain from the mine to the refinery.

Copper's Supply Chain

Copper Deposits Around the World

Copper is a mineral that comes from the Earth’s crust. However, natural history did not evenly distribute it around the world. There are certain geological conditions that need to happen to make an economic deposit of copper.

There are two primary types of copper deposits:

  1. Porphyry Copper Deposits

    These copper ore deposits form from hydrothermal fluids coming from magma chambers below the copper deposit. These are currently the largest source of copper in the world.

  2. Sediment-hosted Copper Deposits

    These are copper deposits that occur in sedimentary rocks that are bound by layers. They are formed by the cooling of copper-bearing hydrothermal fluids.

Copper-containing rock or ore only has a small percentage of copper. Most of the rock is uneconomic material, known as gangue. There are two main copper ore types in mining: copper oxide ores and copper sulfide ores.

Both ore types can be economic, however, the most common source of copper ore is the sulfide ore mineral chalcopyrite, which accounts for ~50% of copper production.

Sulfide copper ores are the most profitable ores because they have high copper content, and refiners easily separate copper from the gangue. Sulfide ores are not as abundant as the oxide ores.

Copper Trade Flows

While copper is a global business, there are clear leaders in the production and refinement of copper based on geology and demand. Chile is the major source for copper, exporting both mined and refined copper.

In a list of the 20 biggest copper mines, 11 reside in Chile and Peru accounting for 40% of mined copper. Meanwhile, China is a leading importer and exporter of refined copper, and it’s home to 9 of the 20 biggest copper smelters in the world.

Copper Imports/Exports

However, this concentrated geography of supply creates risks for the the copper trade.

Inherent Risks

While Chile is one of the richest sources of copper in the world, the mining industry has exploited copper deposits to the point where the grade or quality of the copper ore is declining.

Codelco, the national copper miner of Chile and the world’s largest producer of copper, plans to spend $32B by 2027 to extend the life of its current mines and maintain its copper output.

In addition to declining grades, the geography of copper mining exposes the risk of supply disruption by natural forces.

The borders of Chile and Peru overlap the intersection of the Nazca and the South American Tectonic plates. Movement of these plates can produce powerful earthquakes.

According to one study, regions in Chile and Peru face a greater than 85% chance of a serious earthquake in the next 50 years, potentially disrupting copper mining operations. And according to Wood Mackenzie, a 15-day closure of copper mines in Chile and Peru could wipe out 1.5% of global annual production, or 300,000 tons of copper.

Falling grades and tectonic risk suggest that mining costs are likely to increase, making copper production more expensive and new discoveries more valuable.

Copper for the Future: New Discoveries

As economies grow and infrastructure needs increase, the demand for copper will grow. However, without new discoveries and sources of production, the world could face a shortage of the red metal.

According to data from S&P and the London Metals Exchange, the discovery of copper has not kept up with investment in copper exploration. If this trend persists, there will not be enough copper to replace current resources. On top of this, production from already producing copper mines face resource exhaustion and declining grades.

In order to maintain copper’s supply chain, the world needs new copper discoveries to ensure everyone has access to the materials and products that make modern life.

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5 Trends Shaping the Future of eCommerce

eCommerce is evolving almost as fast as it’s growing. Here’s a look at five major trends that are shaping the future of the eCommerce market.

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The Future of eCommerce

5 Trends Shaping the Future of eCommerce

The global eCommerce market is growing at a rapid pace.

By 2025, it’s expected to reach $4.2 trillion in revenue. But the fast-growing eCommerce market is evolving just as quickly as it’s expanding. And because of rapid innovation in this space, tomorrow’s eCommerce landscape could look vastly different from today’s.

While we can’t predict the future, there are some telling signs of what’s to come. This graphic sponsored by Logiq explores five emerging trends that are transforming the future of eCommerce.

#1: Omnichannel Shopping

These days, a majority of consumers research a brand online before they set foot in a physical store. Because the customer journey now has a myriad of touchpoints across various devices, it’s important that businesses fully integrate their channels to provide a frictionless, holistic shopping experience.

That’s what omnichannel shopping aims to do—seamlessly integrate a company’s physical and online channels. When done correctly, omnichannel strategies can be valuable revenue drivers. In fact, according to research by Google, omnichannel strategies can help generate an estimated 80% of a business’s in-store visits.

#2: AI and AR

Artificial intelligence (AI) and Augmented Reality (AR) are transforming the online shopping experience, with things like:

  • AI-enabled chatbots
  • Virtual assistants
  • AI-enabled personalized shopping
  • AR-apps that help replicate the physical world online

Ideally, these applications provide an easier, more enjoyable shopping experience for consumers. AI and AR technologies are impressive on their own, but when combined, they leverage each other’s strengths to provide an elevated shopping experience.

For instance, an AI and AR-enabled app could use speech recognition to listen to what you’re saying, and then render an image right in front of your eyes.

#3: New Payment Options

In general, technological innovation is aimed at making the online shopping experience as seamless as possible. And payment is an important part of that process, which is why it’s crucial that businesses provide customers a variety of payment options at checkout, to reduce cart abandonment. Some payment options include:

  • Digital wallets
  • Mobile payments
  • Cryptocurrency

Cryptocurrency is especially trendy, as companies become increasingly more open to blockchain tech and cryptocurrency as payment.

#4: Rise of Visual Commerce

We’re living in a world of information overload, meaning brands are constantly competing for consumers’ attention. That’s why visual communication is more important than ever.

Businesses are using visual tactics like high-quality photography, videos, and AR to keep customers engaged.

Just like omnichannel strategies, visual commerce can help significantly increase revenue. According to research by Shopify, customers that viewed a product in AR were 65% more likely to make a purchase.

#5: Data-Driven, Dynamic Pricing

Dynamic pricing is when businesses adjust pricing to reflect consumer demand. While it’s not a new phenomenon, AI and new technology have made it more accurate, and accessible.

Companies like Amazon have already implemented tech that helps the company optimize its pricing strategies, and other businesses that follow suit could see a boost in earnings.

How Companies Can Stay Competitive

The eCommerce market is rapidly growing, and changing just as quickly. Because of this, companies don’t always have the resources to stay ahead of the curve. But Logiq can help.

Logiq is an American-based global provider of eCommerce solutions, helping companies step up their eCommerce offerings. Click here to learn more about Logiq.

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The Genomic Revolution: Why Investors Are Paying Attention

Faster cancer detection. Tracking disease. Gene editing. All three are driven by the genomic revolution. Here’s why it’s important now.

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Genomic Revolution

The Genomic Revolution: Why Investors Are Paying Attention

At the center of the genomic revolution is big data and DNA.

The implications are vast. With recent advancements, faster cancer detection is within reach, potentially saving thousands of lives each year. An initial research study shows this technology could save 66,000 live annually in the U.S. alone.

What’s more, genomic innovation goes beyond just cancer detection. Today it spans a variety of innovations, from gene editing to anti-cancer drugs.

In this graphic from MSCI, we look at four reasons why the genomics sector is positioned for growth thanks to powerful applications in medicine.

What is the Genomic Revolution?

To start, the genomic revolution focuses on the study of the human genome, a human (or organism’s) complete set of DNA.

A human consists of 23 pairs of chromosomes and 24,000 genes. Taken together, the human genetic code equals three billion DNA letters. Since most ailments have a link to our genetic condition, genomics involves the editing, mapping, and function of a genome.

With genomic innovation, large-scale applications of diagnostics and decision-making tools are made possible for a wide range of diseases.

4 Ways the Genomic Revolution is Changing Medicine

Over the last century, the field of genomics has advanced faster than any other life sciences discipline.

The hallmark achievement is the Human Genome Project completed in 2001. Since then, scientists have analyzed thousands of people’s genes to identify the cause of heart disease, cancer, and other fatal afflictions.

Here are four areas where genomic innovation is making a big difference in the medical field.

1. Gene Editing

Gene editing enables scientists to alter someone’s DNA, such as eye color. Broadly speaking, gene editing involves cutting DNA at a certain point and adding to, removing, or replacing this DNA.

For instance, gene editing enables living drugs. As the name suggests, living drugs are made from living organisms that harness a body’s immune system or other bodily process, and uses them to fight disease.

Based on analysis from ARK Invest, living drugs have a potential $200 billion addressable market.

2. Cancer Detection

Multi-cancer screening, supported by genomic sequencing and liquid biopsies, is projected to prevent more deaths from cancer than any other medical innovation.

Through a single blood test, multiple types of cancer can be detected early through synthetic biology advancements. Scientists use genomic sequencing (also referred to as DNA sequencing) to identify the genetic makeup of an organism, or a change in a gene which may lead to cancer.

Critically, screening costs are dropping rapidly, from $30,000 in 2015 to $1,500 in 2021. The combination of these factors is spurring a potential $150 billion market. This could be revolutionary for healthcare by shifting from a treatment-based model to a more preventative one in the future.

3. DNA Sequencing

One modern form of DNA sequencing is long-read DNA sequencing. With long-read DNA sequencing, scientists can identify genetic sequences faster and more affordably.

For these reasons, long-read DNA sequencing is projected to grow to a $5 billion market, growing at a 82% annual rate.

4. Agricultural Biology

Finally, the genomic revolution is making strides in agricultural biology. Here, research is looking at how to reduce the cost of producing crops, improving plant breeding, and enhancing quality.

One study shows that genomic advances in agriculture have led to six-fold increases in income for some farmers.

Investing in the Genomic Revolution

A number of genomic-focused companies have shown promising returns.

This can be illustrated by the MSCI ACWI Genomic Innovation Index, which has outperformed the benchmark by nearly 50% since 2013. The index, which was developed with ARK Invest, comprises roughly 250 companies who are working in the field of genomic innovation. In 2020 alone, the index returned over 43%.

From diagnostics to prevention, the genomic revolution is breaking ground in scalable solutions for global health. Investment opportunities are expected to follow.

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