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Chart: One Reason a Brexit Makes Sense

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Chart: One Reason a Brexit Makes Sense

Chart: One Reason a Brexit Makes Sense

The UK escapes a swath of troubled loans and fiscal problems.

The Chart of the Week is a weekly Visual Capitalist feature on Fridays.

Economic authorities and pundits have been vocal about the potential economic consequences of a Brexit.

The Bank of England said a “Leave” vote would increase unemployment, stoke inflation, slow economic growth, and prompt consumers and businesses to delay spending. The results would be recessionary.

The IMF warned that leaving the EU would cause “severe regional and global damage” for years to come.

The main argument here is that a lack of access to the single market will hurt the UK economy, and this could prove to be very true in time.

Market, Schmarket

While keeping economic ties to the single market is an important point to consider, the UK also gains a distinct advantage from maintaining a further distance from parts of the EU ecosystem.

Why? Because parts of Europe are still an economic mess, and things aren’t getting better. Just look to the recent banking mess in Italy and non-performing loans (NPLs) as an example.

Historical NPLs (Data from IMF)
Historical NPLs according to IMF

Italian banks are currently being crushed by €360 billion in non-performing loans. According to the European Banking Authority, they make up 16.9% of all lending as of March 2016, and are unlikely to be paid in full. As a result, bank stock prices in Italy have plummeted.

Banca Monte dei Paschi di Siena, Italy’s third-largest bank by assets, is now trading for €0.31, which is a mere 15% of its 52-week highs at €2.04. UniCredit, the country’s largest bank with just under €1 trillion in assets, is trading at one-third of what it was worth a year ago.

To help solve the disaster, the ECB’s Mario Draghi is now backing a public bailout of Italy’s banking sector.

Outside of Italy

Portugal has a similar banking crisis brewing. Non-performing loans have mounted to 18.5%, and Prime Minister Antonio Costa is also publicly looking for a solution to help Portuguese banks.

Even Germany, which is typically rock-solid, has its own banking issues. As we covered a couple of weeks ago, the country’s largest bank, Deutsche Bank, has seen its value collapse as it has been engulfed by scandals, record losses, missed stress tests, and poor planning.

While access to markets is important for the UK, keeping a distance from flailing European banks also seems like it could be a wise choice in the long run as well.

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The 7 Major Flaws of the Global Financial System

Since the invention of banking, the global financial system has increasingly become more centralized. Here are the big flaws it has, as a result.

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The 7 Major Flaws of the Global Financial System

Since the invention of banking, the global financial system has become increasingly centralized.

In the modern system, central banks now control everything from interest rates to the issuance of currency, while government regulators, corporations, and intergovernmental organizations wield unparalleled influence at the top of this crucial food chain.

There is no doubt that this centralization has led to the creation of massive amounts of wealth, especially to those properly connected to the financial system. However, the same centralization has also arguably contributed to many global challenges and risks we face today.

Flaws of the Global Financial System

Today’s infographic comes to us from investment app Abra, and it highlights the seven major flaws of the global financial system, ranging from the lack of basic access to financial services to growing inequality.

1. Billions of people globally remain unbanked
To participate in the global financial sector, whether it is to make a digital payment or manage one’s wealth, one must have access to a bank account. However, 1.7 billion adults worldwide remain unbanked, having zero access to an account with a financial institution or a mobile money provider.

2. Global financial literacy remains low
For people to successfully use financial services and markets, they must have some degree of financial literacy. According to a recent global survey, just 1-in-3 people show an understanding of basic financial concepts, with most of these people living in high income economies.

Without an understanding of key concepts in finance, it makes it difficult for the majority of the population to make the right decisions – and to build wealth.

3. High intermediary costs and slow transactions
Once a person has access to financial services, sending and storing money should be inexpensive and fast.

However, just the opposite is true. Around the globe, the average cost of a remittance is 7.01% in fees per transaction – and when using banks, that rises to 10.53%. Even worse, these transactions can take days at a time, which seems quite unnecessary in today’s digital era.

4. Low trust in financial institutions and governments
The financial sector is the least trusted business sector globally, with only a 57% level of trust according to Edelman. Meanwhile, trust in governments is even lower, with only 40% trusting the U.S. government, and the global country average sitting at 47%.

5. Rising global inequality
In a centralized system, financial markets tend to be dominated by those who are best connected to them.

These are people who have:

  • Access to many financial opportunities and asset classes
  • Capital to deploy
  • Informational advantages
  • Access to financial expertise

In fact, according to recent data on global wealth concentration, the top 1% own 47% of all household wealth, while the top 10% hold roughly 85%.

On the other end of the spectrum, the vast majority of people have little to no financial assets to even start building wealth. Not only are many people living paycheck to paycheck – but they also don’t have access to assets that can create wealth, like stocks, bonds, mutual funds, or ETFs.

6. Currency manipulation and censorship
In a centralized system, countries have the power to manipulate and devalue fiat currencies, and this can have a devastating effect on markets and the lives of citizens.

In Venezuela, for example, the government has continually devalued its currency, creating runaway hyperinflation as a result. The last major currency manipulation in 2018 increased the price of a cup of coffee by over 772,400% in six months.

Further, centralized power also gives governments and financial institutions the ability to financially censor citizens, by taking actions such as freezing accounts, denying access to payment systems, removing funds from accounts, and denying the retrieval of funds during bank runs.

7. The build-up of systemic risk
Finally, centralization creates one final and important drawback.

With financial power concentrated with just a select few institutions, such as central banks and “too big too fail” companies, it means that one abject failure can decimate an entire system.

This happened in 2008 as U.S. subprime mortgages turned out to be an Achilles Heel for bank balance sheets, creating a ripple effect throughout the globe. Centralization means all eggs in one basket – and if that basket breaks it can possibly lead to the destruction of wealth on a large scale.

The Future of the Global Financial System?

The risks and drawbacks of centralization to the global financial system are well known, however there has never been much of a real alternative – until now.

With the proliferation of mobile phones and internet access, as well as the development of decentralization technologies like the blockchain, it may be possible to build an entirely new financial system.

But is the world ready?

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The World’s Most Valuable Bank Brands

These charts visualize the most valuable bank brands around the world, while also showing the rise of China’s financial services sector over time.

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Visualizing The World’s Most Valuable Bank Brands

When most people think about brands, they often picture iconic consumer marks like Coca-Cola or Apple.

But in the realm of financial services, the importance of having a strong consumer brand is also rapidly growing. After all, with hundreds of new fintech entrants positioning themselves to be the “banks” of the future, it seems that brand awareness may be one of the major competitive advantages that incumbent banks can use to protect themselves.

Which financial institutions have the strongest brands, and which brands are the most valuable?

Valuable Bank Brands in 2019

Today’s chart looks at the world’s most valuable bank brands, according to a recent report from Brand Finance.

It should be noted that brand value in this context is a measure of the “value of the trade mark and associated marketing IP within the branded business”. In other words, it’s measuring the value of intangible marketing assets, and not the overall worth of a business itself.

Here are the top bank brands by value in 2019:

Top bank brands by value

For the third year in a row, the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC) takes the top spot, with a brand value of $79.8 billion.

Wells Fargo is the top U.S. bank by brand value, coming in 5th place – however, the bank actually fell two spots from last year’s ranking while simultaneously losing 9% of its brand value. This is not surprising in light of the recent publicity challenges faced by the bank.

The Ascent of Chinese Banks

It’s also interesting to note that Chinese banks have taken all four of the top spots on the list, with ICBC, China Construction Bank, Agricultural Bank of China, and Bank of China having a combined brand value of over $250 billion.

Here’s a look at the ascent of Chinese banks over time:

Ascent of China Banks

In contrast, in the entire span of 2009-2014, there were zero Chinese banks that cracked the top five.

The Strongest Bank Brands

Finally, here is a look at the strongest bank brands.

It’s worth noting that in contrast to value, these are banks that have executed on their branding, marketing, and sales strategies to have brands that ultimately create a competitive advantage for their business.

Strongest bank brands

Brand Finance measures brand strength by looking at a balanced scorecard of metrics evaluating marketing investment, stakeholder equity, and business performance.

For more insights, don’t forget to check out Brand Finance’s report.

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