Charting the $1.7B Transfer of Military Equipment to Police Departments
View the full-size version of this infographic.
In the wake of countrywide protests surrounding the killing of George Floyd, questions around the militarization of police forces have taken center stage once again.
How did so many police departments across the United States end up with bomb-proof trucks and night vision goggles? Where are departments acquiring this equipment, and at what cost?
These questions and more are answered by data from the Defense Logistics Agency, which oversees the 1033 Program. The visualization above tracks the flow of military equipment to law enforcement over the past decade.
A note on the data: Much of the equipment acquired through the program is already used – and often obsolete by military standards. As well, the 1033 dataset captures shipments of equipment. Over time, items can be transferred between departments, meaning these official records may be less reflective of specific police department inventories as time goes on. For these reasons, we decided to cap our analysis to looking at the last decade (2010-2020) of transfers.
Free Military Surplus for Law Enforcement
The 1033 Program was conceived in the years following Operation Desert Storm, just as America’s violent crime rate was hitting an all-time high. During this era, America’s “war on drugs” and tough-on-crime political platforms provided the impetus for the militarization of police forces around the country.
The 1033 program has been likened to Craigslist’s “Free Stuff” section, and the comparison is apt. The mechanics of the program are relatively straightforward. Outdated military gear is transferred (at no cost) to state and local law enforcement agencies who go through the application process. The equipment is loaned to agencies, who are only responsible only for shipping and subsequent operating costs (e.g. fuel, spare parts).
Law enforcement agencies gain access to a vast array of military surplus, from office supplies and thermal underwear up to armored vehicles and multi-million dollar communications systems. Also included in the mix are medical supplies and gear to aid in search and rescue operations. Since the program’s inception, over $7.4 billion worth of property has been transferred.
One of the most popular items acquired by police departments is the Mine-Resistant Ambush Protected vehicle, or MRAP. Over the past decade, over 1,000 of these vehicles were transferred from the military to law enforcement agencies. This includes places like Monett, Missouri (population 9,000), which is on record as receiving two MRAP vehicles.
Night vision equipment is extremely popular as well. Items like goggles, scopes, and surveillance equipment – which can run thousands of dollars per unit – have been shipped to police departments around the country.
Of course, military surplus isn’t just about fancy vehicles and weaponry. The Meade County Sheriff’s Office in Kentucky is on record for ordering a single box of toilet paper just as COVID-19 was on the rise in that state.
Shipments at the State Level
Since the army is willing to part with excess equipment, cash-strapped police departments are happy to oblige. More than $1.7 billion of surplus has been transferred over to police around the country over the past decade.
The two biggest spenders, California and Texas, combined to acquire a total of $271 million in equipment, but looking at things on a per capita basis helps to show the states that were most enthusiastic about the 1033 Program in more relative terms.
|State||Value of equipment (2010-2020)||Value of equipment per capita|
Tennessee had by far the highest spending considering its population, with police departments in the state acquiring $20 worth of equipment per person. With the exception of Arizona, all the states that rank highly in that metric have per capita police spending that sits well below the U.S. average.
On the flip side, New York came in at a fraction of that amount, acquiring only $1.74 worth of equipment for every person in the state. Of course, it’s worth noting that New York had the highest police expenditure in the country (after Washington DC).
Who got the Goods?
Not surprisingly, state-level law enforcement agencies topped the list. For example, the Arizona Department of Public Safety received multiple airplanes valued at $17 million per unit. California’s highway patrol received the most expensive single item on the list – a $22 million aircraft.
For a more local perspective, here’s a look at the top 20 police departments by value of military equipment acquired:
|Law Enforcement Agency (Exc. state)||State||Value of Equipment Acquired|
|Houston Police Department||TX||$11,682,951|
|Las Vegas Metro Police Department||NV||$8,995,931|
|Washington County Sheriff's Office||TN||$7,501,075|
|Columbus Division of Police||OH||$6,885,949|
|Ventura County Sheriff's Office||CA||$6,605,678|
|Columbus County Sheriff's Office||NC||$6,596,927|
|Sacramento County Sheriff's Department||CA||$6,142,009|
|Santa Barbara County Sheriff's Office||CA||$5,902,198|
|Hocking County Sheriff's Office||OH||$5,865,008|
|Jackson Police Department||MS||$5,823,634|
|Orange County Sheriff's Department||CA||$5,802,758|
|Lawrenceburg Police Department||TN||$5,543,166|
|Sherburne County Sheriff's Office||MN||$5,194,238|
|Kirklin Police Department||IN||$5,014,748|
|Los Angeles Country Sheriff's Department||CA||$4,840,970|
|King Country Sheriff's Department||WA||$4,618,686|
|Pinal Country Sheriff's Department||AZ||$4,305,849|
|Martin County Sheriff's Office||FL||$4,179,645|
|Kane County Sheriff's Office||IL||$4,006,465|
|Cottage Grove Police Department||MN||$3,941,606|
On its own, Houston police department received as much as the bottom five states combined. Nearly 400 other police departments also broke the $1 million barrier, and over 2,026 departments around the country received over $100,000 in goods.
9/11 Timeline: Three Hours That Changed Everything
This timeline visualization is a high-level record of what happened on the fateful morning of September 11, 2001
9/11 Timeline: Three Hours That Changed Everything
For Americans and people watching around the world, September 11, 2001, is a day that will never be forgotten.
Within three hours, New York’s tallest buildings were reduced to rubble, and the Pentagon—the nerve center of the American armed forces—was burning and partially collapsed. Thousands of civilians had lost their lives and were seriously injured, and the entire country was in collective shock, still trying to make sense of how a coordinated act of terrorism of that magnitude was allowed to take place on American soil.
In the 20 years since 9/11, the events that occurred that morning have been analyzed in-depth from a thousand different angles. Even though the attacks took place in the era just before mobile phones had viable cameras, there are countless images and videos of the event. As well, we now have the 9/11 Commission Report, which compiles interviews from over 1,200 people in 10 countries, and draws upon two and a half million pages of documents to present its findings.
For many people younger than Generation X, 9/11 is a feeling—a grim milestone from their youth—but the details are likely more fuzzy. The timeline visualization above is a high-level record of what happened that morning during the three hours when everything changed.
A Chronology of Terror
In its most simple form, the 9/11 attacks can be described as a coordinated hijacking of four commercial airplanes, which were then used to fly into high profile targets in New York City and Washington, DC. Here is a summary of the planes involved in the incident:
These four flights play a central role in what unfolded that morning. In the early hours of September 11, 2001, a collection of 19 would-be hijackers made their way through security at airports in Boston, Newark, and Washington, DC.
Our three-hour timeline begins just before 8am, as the first plane involved in the attack leaves the tarmac just outside of Boston. (In situations where the exact time isn’t known, a range is given.)
Sept 11, 2001, 7:59am – American Airlines Flight 11, a Boeing 767 carrying 81 passengers and 11 crew members, departs from Logan International Airport in Boston, bound for Los Angeles International Airport.
8:14 – United Airlines Flight 175, a Boeing 767, carrying 56 passengers and 9 crew members, departs from Logan International Airport in Boston, bound for Los Angeles International Airport.
8:14 – Flight 11 is hijacked over central Massachusetts. There are five hijackers on board.
8:20 – American Airlines Flight 77, a Boeing 757 with 58 passengers and 6 crew members, departs from Washington Dulles International Airport, for Los Angeles International Airport.
8:42 – United Airlines Flight 93, a Boeing 757 with 37 passengers and 7 crew members, departs from Newark International Airport, bound for San Francisco International Airport.
8:42–8:46 – Flight 175 is hijacked above northwest New Jersey. There are five hijackers on board.
8:46 – Flight 11 crashes into the north face of the North Tower (1 WTC) of the World Trade Center, between floors 93 and 99. All 92 people on board are killed.
8:50–8:54 – Flight 77 is hijacked above southern Ohio. There are five hijackers on board.
9:03 – Flight 175 crashes into the south face of the South Tower (2 WTC) of the World Trade Center, between floors 77 and 85. All 65 people on board are killed.
9:28 – Flight 93 is hijacked above northern Ohio. There are four hijackers on board.
9:37 – Flight 77 crashes into the western side of The Pentagon. All 64 people on board are killed.
9:45 – United States airspace is shut down; all operating aircraft are ordered to land at the nearest airport.
9:59 – The South Tower of the World Trade Center collapses, 56 minutes after the impact of Flight 175.
10:03 – Flight 93 is crashed by its hijackers in a field in Somerset County, Pennsylvania. Later reports indicate that passengers had learned about the World Trade Center and Pentagon crashes and were resisting the hijackers. All 44 people on board are killed in the crash.
10:28 – The North Tower of the World Trade Center collapses, 1 hour and 42 minutes after the impact of Flight 11. The Marriott Hotel at the base of the two towers is also destroyed.
10:50 – Five stories of the western side of the Pentagon collapse due to the fire.
Two and a half hours after the first plane left Boston, the iconic “Twin Towers” lay in ruins in Lower Manhattan, and brave first responders and military personnel were scrambling to save lives and secure the country.
Life in America was set on a new trajectory.
Two decades is a long time in the world of technology and media. Though the communication channels of that era may seem slow by today’s standards, the September 11 terrorist attacks still took place in the age of 24-hour cable news coverage and nascent online reporting.
Add in the fact that New York was (and still is) a linchpin of global media, and it’s easy to see why media coverage of the attack spread so quickly.
Within two minutes of the first impact on the World Trade Center, a nearby camera crew covering New York’s mayoral primary election was already broadcasting a live feed of the burning building to a TV audience. Within three minutes, news of the attack hit the Associated Press newswire, and moments after that, most major networks cut away from scheduled programming to cover the story.
Less than 10 minutes after the impact, President Bush–who was attending an event at a Florida elementary school–was informed of the crash (which at that point was characterized as an accident).
Because media outlets were able to cover the incident so quickly, millions of people witnessed the second plane striking the South Tower in real-time a mere 17 minutes after the first impact. This was a defining moment as millions of people around the world experience the events precisely as they unfolded.
The still-young internet was strained that day. Moments after the impact of the North Tower, the CNN and MSNBC websites experienced a crushing load of traffic that overwhelmed servers. The FBI’s website also experienced issues after posting the images of the 9/11 hijackers later that day.
The Pentagon has been repaired, and a shiny, 94-story World Trade Center now punctuates the skyline of Lower Manhattan, but not all wounds have healed.
For one, many 9/11 survivors are living with lingering health issues believed to be linked to the toxic smoke from the attack and building collapse. Many others are living with the absence of the nearly 3,000 loved-ones who died during the attacks.
The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is still a lasting legacy of the 9/11 attacks. When DHS began operations in 2003, it was the largest U.S. government reorganization in the 50 years since the Department of Defense was created. In addition to this largely “hidden” layer of security, people now encounter more vigorous security protocol at airports around the world.
As well, the recent withdrawal from Afghanistan was a reminder that long shadow of the attack is still influencing events today, even two decades later.
Comparing the Size of The World’s Rockets, Past and Present
This infographic sizes up different rockets used to explore space, from the USSR’s Soyuz to the SpaceX Starship.
The Size of The World’s Rockets, Past and Present
The SpaceX Starship might be the next rocket to take humans to the moon, but it won’t be the first, and likely not the last.
Starting in the mid-20th century, humanity has explored space faster than ever before. We’ve launched satellites, telescopes, space stations, and spacecrafts, all strapped to rocket-propelled launch vehicles that helped them breach our atmosphere.
This infographic from designer Tyler Skarbek stacks up the many different rockets of the world side-by-side, showing which country designed them, what years they were used, and what they (could) accomplish.
How Do The World’s Rockets Stack Up?
Before they were used for space travel, rockets were produced and developed to be used as ballistic missiles.
The first rocket to officially reach space—defined by the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale as crossing the Kármán line at 100 kilometers (62 miles) above Earth’s mean sea level—was the German-produced V-2 rocket in 1944.
But after World War II, V-2 production fell into the hands of the U.S., the Soviet Union (USSR), and the UK.
Over the next few decades and the unfolding of the Cold War, what started as a nuclear arms race of superior ballistic missiles turned into the Space Race. Both the U.S. and the USSR tried to be the first to achieve and master spaceflight, driving production of many new and different rockets.
|Origin Country||Rocket||Years Active||Payload (Range)||Success/Failure|
|U.S.||Vanguard||1957–1959||9 kg (LEO)||3/8|
|USSR||Sputnik||1957–1964||1,322 kg (LEO)||6/1|
|U.S.||Juno 1||1958–1958||11 kg (LEO)||3/3|
|U.S.||Juno II||1958–1961||41 kg (LEO)||4/6|
|USSR||Vostok||1958–1991||4,725 kg (LEO)||106/3|
|U.S.||Redstone||1960–1961||1,800 kg (Suborbital)||5/1|
|U.S.||Atlas LV-3B||1960–1963||1,360 kg (LEO)||7/2|
|U.S.||Atlas-Agena||1960–1978||1,000 kg (LEO)||93/16|
|U.S.||Scout||1961–1994||150 kg (LEO)||121/27|
|USSR||Voskhod||1963–1976||5,900 kg (LEO)||281/14|
|U.S.||Titan II||1964–1966||3,100 kg (LEO)||12/0|
|Europe (ELDO)||Europa||1964–1971||360 kg (GTO)||4/7|
|France||Diamant||1965–1975||160 kg (LEO)||9/3|
|U.S.||Atlas E/F||1965–2001||820 kg (LEO)||56/9|
|USSR||Soyuz||1965–Present||7,100 kg (LEO)||1263/44|
|USSR||Proton||1965–Present||23,700 kg (LEO)||375/48|
|U.S.||Saturn 1B||1966–1975||21,000 kg (LEO)||9/0|
|U.S.||Saturn V||1967–1973||48,600 kg (TLI)||13/0|
|USSR||Kosmos-3M||1967–2010||1,500 kg (LEO)||424/20|
|UK||Black Arrow||1969–1971||135 kg (LEO)||2/2|
|U.S.||Titan 23B||1969–1971||3,300 kg (LEO)||32/1|
|USSR||N1||1969–1972||23,500 kg (TLI)||0/4|
|Japan||N-1||1975–1982||1,200 kg (LEO)||6/1|
|Europe (ESA)||Ariane 1||1976–1986||1,400 kg (LEO)||9/2|
|USSR||Tsyklon-3||1977–2009||4,100 kg (LEO)||114/8|
|U.S.||STS||1981–2011||24,400 kg (LEO)||133/2|
|USSR||Zenit||1985–Present||13,740 kg (LEO)||71/13|
|Japan||H-I||1986–1992||3,200 kg (LEO)||9/0|
|USSR||Energia||1987–1988||88,000 kg (LEO)||2/0|
|Israel||Shavit||1988–2016||800 kg (LEO)||8/2|
|U.S.||Titan IV||1989–2005||17,000 kg (LEO)||35/4|
|U.S.||Delta II||1989–2018||6,100 kg (LEO)||155/2|
|Europe (ESA)||Ariane 4||1990–2003||7,600 kg (LEO)||113/3|
|U.S.||Pegasus||1990–Present||443 kg (LEO)||39/5|
|Russia||Rokot||1990–Present||1,950 kg (LEO)||31/3|
|U.S.||Atlas II||1991–2004||6,580 kg (LEO)||63/0|
|China||Long March 2D||1992–Present||3,500 kg (LEO)||44/1|
|India||PSLV||1993–Present||3,800 kg (LEO)||47/3|
|Japan||H-IIA||1994–2018||15,000 kg (LEO)||40/1|
|Europe (ESA)||Ariane 5||1996–Present||10,865 kg (GTO)||104/5|
|Brazil||VLS-1||1997–2003||380 kg (LEO)||0/2|
|USSR||Dnepr-1||1999–2015||4,500 kg (LEO)||21/1|
|U.S.||Atlas III||2000–2005||8,640 kg (LEO)||6/0|
|Japan||M-V||2000–2006||1,800 kg (LEO)||6/1|
|U.S.||Minotaur 1||2000–2013||580 kg (LEO)||11/0|
|India||GSLV MK1||2001–2016||5,000 kg (LEO)||6/5|
|U.S.||Atlas V 400||2002–Present||15,260 kg (LEO)||54/1|
|U.S.||Delta IV Medium||2003–Present||9,420 kg (LEO)||20/0|
|U.S.||Delta IV Heavy||2004–Present||28,790 kg (LEO)||12/1|
|U.S.||Falcon 1||2006–2009||180 kg (LEO)||2/3|
|China||Long March 4C||2006–Present||4,200 kg (LEO)||26/2|
|U.S.||Atlas V 500||2006–Present||18,850 kg (LEO)||27/0|
|Iran||Safir||2008–Present||65 kg (LEO)||4/1|
|U.S.||Minotaur IV||2010–Present||1,735 kg (LEO)||6/0|
|Europe (ESA)||Vega||2012–Present||1,450 kg (SSO)||14/1|
|U.S.||Minotaur V||2013–Present||532 kg (GTO)||1/0|
|Japan||Epsilon||2013–Present||1,500 kg (LEO)||4/0|
|U.S.||Antares||2013–Present||8,000 kg (LEO)||11/1|
|U.S.||Falcon 9 FT||2013–Present||22,800 kg (LEO)||96/0|
|India||GSLV MK3||2014–Present||4,000 kg (GTO)||4/0|
|Russia||Angara 5||2014–Present||13,450 kg (LEO)||3/0|
|New Zealand||Electron||2017–Present||225 kg (SSO)||17/2|
|U.S.||Falcon 9 Heavy||2018–Present||54,400 kg (LEO)||3/0|
|U.S.||Starship||2021–Present||100,000 kg (LEO)||0/0|
|U.S.||SLS||2021–Present||36,740 kg (TLI)||0/0|
As the Space Race wound down, the U.S. proved to be the biggest producer of different rockets. The eventual dissolution of the USSR in 1991 transferred production of Soviet rockets to Russia or Ukraine. Then later, both Europe (through the European Space Agency) and Japan ramped up rocket production as well.
More recently, new countries have since joined the race, including China, Iran, and India. Though the above infographic shows many different families of rockets, it doesn’t include all, including China’s Kuaizhou rocket and Iran’s Zuljanah and Qased rockets.
Rocket Range Explained and Continued Space Aspirations
Designing a rocket that can reach far into space while carrying a heavy payload—the objects or entities being carried by a vehicle—is extremely difficult and precise. It’s not called rocket science for nothing.
When rockets are designed, they are are created with one specific range in mind that takes into account the fuel needed to travel and velocity achievable. Alternatively, they have different payload ratings depending on what’s achievable and reliable based on the target range.
- Suborbital: Reaches outer space, but its trajectory intersects the atmosphere and comes back down. It won’t be able to complete an orbital revolution or reach escape velocity.
- LEO (Low Earth orbit): Reaches altitude of up to ~2,000 km (1242.74 miles) and orbits the Earth at an orbital period of 128 minutes or less (or 11.25 orbits per day).
- SSO (Sun-synchronous orbit): Reaches around 600–800 km above Earth in altitude but orbits at an inclination of ~98°, or nearly from pole to pole, in order to keep consistent solar time.
- GTO (Geosynchronous transfer orbit): Launches into a highly elliptical orbit which gets as close in altitude as LEO and as far away as 35,786 km (22,236 miles) above sea level.
- TLI (Trans-lunar injection): Launches on a trajectory (or accelerates from Earth orbit) to reach the Moon, an average distance of 384,400 km (238,900 miles) from Earth.
But there are other ranges and orbits in the eyes of potential spacefarers. Mars for example, a lofty target in the eyes of SpaceX and billionaire founder Elon Musk, is between about 54 and 103 million km (34 and 64 million miles) from Earth at its closest approach.
With space exploration becoming more common, and lucrative enough to warrant billion-dollar lawsuits over contract awards, how far will future rockets go?
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