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The Anatomy of a Market Correction

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The Anatomy of a Market Correction

The Anatomy of a Market Correction

Markets are rarely a straight march forward.

Even though the end destination is usually a bullish one, markets often take a far more scenic route to get there. Sometimes that means going off the beaten path, and other times it may mean taking a step directly backwards to get reoriented.

In investing parlance, the latter situation can be described as a market correction: a short-term duration market move between -10% and -20%.

These are significant declines that can be a “gut check” for investors, especially for those who haven’t experienced many of them in their investing careers.

Breaking Down a Market Correction

Today’s infographic comes to us from Fisher Investments, and it describes the anatomy of market corrections, while also visualizing much of the data around these common events.

The average market correction looks something like this:

  • Frequency:
    On average, there is one market correction that occurs each year
  • Length:
    The average correction lasts for 71.6 days
  • Depth:
    The average correction involves a 15.6% decline
  • Impact:
    A correction often results in increases in uncertainty, volatility, and media alarmism.

In the current bull market, there have already been eight corrections. The most noteworthy of these went from May 21, 2015 until February 11, 2016 and resulted in a -18.9% fall in stock prices.

Bull or Bear?

One of the biggest challenges created by market corrections is that they are also far from straightforward.

Corrections can be over in two weeks, or it can take almost a year for a correction to eventually revert back to a bull market. To complicate matters, there is also a chance that a correction may turn into a bear market – a fundamentally-driven and sustained decline where the market dips 20% or more.

While every correction is different, data can also help paint a clearer picture: between 1980-2016 there were 36 corrections in the U.S. market, and only five of them (about 14%) resulted in longer, sustained bear markets.

The flipside of this, however, means that 86% of the time, a correction ends up just being a blip on the radar of an otherwise intact bull market.

In other words, the vast majority of corrections end up providing an opportunity for smart investors to take advantage of lower prices before a bull market continues its climb.

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Markets

Ranked: Top 10 Single-Day Market Cap Gains

Nvidia broke the record for the largest single-day market cap gains after adding nearly $250B on Feb. 22, 2024.

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The 10 Biggest Single-Day Market Cap Gains

This was originally posted on our Voronoi app. Download the app for free on iOS or Android and discover incredible data-driven charts from a variety of trusted sources.

Since the COVID-19 pandemic, U.S. tech stocks have led in terms of market cap gains, sometimes boosting their valuations by hundreds of billions of dollars in a single day.

In this graphic, we’ve ranked the largest single-day gains ever recorded, using data from Bloomberg.

Top 10 List

The top 10 list includes just 5 companies, and all are based in the U.S.

RankDateCompanySingle-day
Market Cap Gain
(USD billions)
1Feb 22, 2024NVIDIA$247.0
2Feb 2, 2024Meta$196.8
3Nov 10, 2022Apple$190.9
4Feb 4, 2022Amazon$190.8
5May 25, 2023NVIDIA$184.1
6Jan 28, 2022Apple$178.9
7Jul 31, 2020Apple$169.0
8Oct 28, 2022Apple$150.5
9Mar 13, 2020Microsoft$150.4
10Apr 26, 2023Microsoft$148.3

To put these massive gains into context, consider this: As of May 2023, the average market cap of an S&P 500 company was $30.4 billion.

Meta’s $197B Record Didn’t Last Long

On Feb 2. 2024, Meta set a new record for the largest single-day gain after reporting strong quarterly earnings, as well as announcing $50B in share repurchases and its first ever dividend payment.

This record lasted only 20 days, however, as Nvidia’s massive Q4 2024 earnings beat sent it to all-time highs. The firm is now nearing a $2T valuation, firmly placing it among the world’s most valuable corporations.

More on Nvidia’s Earnings…

Nvidia reported $12.3B in net income during Q4 2024, which is 769% higher than the same quarter last year. Revenues are also up 265% from last year, largely driven by demand for its AI chips like the H100 Tensor Core GPU.

Nvidia’s earnings have seemingly shifted the AI craze into another gear, boosting other chip stocks like AMD and Super Micro Computer (SMCI) to double-digit % gains for the day (Feb 22).

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