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A Visual Guide to Europe’s Member States

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Map of Europe's member states

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Who are Europe’s Member States?

With Ukraine’s recent bid to join the European Union (EU), the current status of Europe’s member states is back in the fray.

The European member states are countries mainly in Europe, and three outside, that are part of one or more of the four major treaty groups, namely the European Union (EU), NATO, Schengen, and eurozone.

Each of these institutions governs a different aspect of the region’s infrastructure.

Let’s take a look at each of them.

European Union

The European Union (EU) is a unique economic and political union between 27 European countries.

First created as the European Economic Community in the aftermath of WW2, the organization’s main focus was to foster economic cooperation. The idea was simple: countries that trade with one another and become economically interdependent are more likely to avoid conflict.

Beginning with six countries in 1958, the European Economic Community has since added 21 more countries (the UK left the EU in 2020), with a primary focus on single or internal markets.

Here are the countries that comprise the European Union:

NumberCountriesYear of Accession
1🇦🇹 Austria1995
2🇧🇪 BelgiumFounder
3🇧🇬 Bulgaria2007
4🇭🇷 Croatia2013
5🇨🇾 Cyprus2004
6🇨🇿 Czech Republic2004
7🇩🇰 Denmark1973
8🇪🇪 Estonia2004
9🇫🇮 Finland1995
10🇫🇷 FranceFounder
11🇩🇪 GermanyFounder
12🇬🇷 Greece1981
13🇭🇺 Hungary2004
14🇮🇪 Ireland1973
15🇮🇹 ItalyFounder
16🇱🇻 Latvia2004
17🇱🇹 Lithuania2004
18🇱🇺 LuxembourgFounder
19🇲🇹 Malta2004
20🇳🇱 NetherlandsFounder
21🇵🇱 Poland2004
22🇵🇹 Portugal1986
23🇷🇴 Romania2007
24🇸🇰 Slovakia2004
25🇸🇮 Slovenia2004
26🇪🇸 Spain1986
27🇸🇪 Sweden1995

What began as a purely economic union has evolved into an organization pioneering the development of many different policy areas. A name change from the European Economic Community to the European Union in 1993 reflected this.

NATO

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) exists for the sole purpose of facilitating a political and military alliance between its 30 member countries.

Established in 1949 in response to post-WW2 Soviet aggression, NATO exists for the collective defense and security of the group. Members share few laws and regulations. An attack on one constitutes an attack on all, and member states are obligated to defend one another.

The chronological timeline of NATO’s expansion since its establishment paints a fascinating picture.

Timeline of NATO expansion since establishment.

As of 2021, NATO officially recognizes three aspiring NATO members: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Georgia, and Ukraine. Ukraine has voiced its desire to join NATO since 2014 but hasn’t met its political and military criteria.

Eurozone

The eurozone is a geographic and economic region that consists of countries that have adopted the euro as their national currency. Approximately 340 million people live in the euro area.

Today, the eurozone consists of 19 countries of the European Union. Here they are:

NumberCountriesYear of Adoption
1🇦🇹 Austria1999
2🇧🇪 Belgium1999
3🇨🇾 Cyprus2008
4🇪🇪 Estonia2011
5🇫🇮 Finland1999
6🇫🇷 France1999
7🇩🇪 Germany1999
8🇬🇷 Greece2001
9🇮🇪 Ireland1999
10🇮🇹 Italy1999
11🇱🇻 Latvia2014
12🇱🇹 Lithuania2015
13🇱🇺 Luxembourg1999
14🇲🇹 Malta2008
15🇳🇱 Netherlands1999
16🇵🇹 Portugal1999
17🇸🇰 Slovakia2009
18🇸🇮 Slovenia2007
19🇪🇸 Spain1999

European Union nations that decide to participate in the eurozone must meet a multitude of financial requirements. They include price stability, sound public finances, the durability of convergence, and exchange rate stability.

Not all countries have to adopt the currency, though. For example, Denmark has a special opt-out clause to use its own currency and maintain its financial independence.

Schengen

The Schengen Area comprises 26 European countries that agreed to create common entry and exit requirements to remove the need for internal borders. This allows travellers up to 90 days of visa-free travel to any of the countries in the Schengen Area.

The border-free Schengen Area guarantees free movement to more than 400 million EU citizens, along with non-EU nationals living in the EU or visiting as tourists, exchange students, or for business purposes.

Here’s a list of the 26 countries that are a part of the Schengen Area:

NumberCountriesYear of Implementation
1🇦🇹 Austria1997
2🇧🇪 Belgium1995
3🇨🇿 Czech Republic2007
4🇩🇰 Denmark2001
5🇪🇪 Estonia2007
6🇫🇮 Finland2001
7🇫🇷 France1995
8🇩🇪 Germany1995
9🇬🇷 Greece2000
10🇭🇺 Hungary2007
11🇮🇸 Iceland2001
12🇮🇹 Italy1997
13🇱🇻 Latvia2007
14🇱🇮 Liechtenstein2011
15🇱🇹 Lithuania2007
16🇱🇺 Luxembourg1995
17🇲🇹 Malta2007
18🇳🇱 Netherlands1995
19🇳🇴 Norway2001
20🇵🇱 Poland2007
21🇵🇹 Portugal1995
22🇸🇰 Slovakia2007
23🇸🇮 Slovenia2007
24🇪🇸 Spain1995
25🇸🇪 Sweden2001
26🇨🇭 Switzerland2008

Monaco, Vatican City, and San Marino also have open borders with Schengen area countries even though they aren’t part of the treaty.

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China

Which Countries Have the Most Economic Influence in Southeast Asia?

One country dominates this survey of who has the most economic influence in the region.

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A cropped bar chart depicting the countries/ regions identified by respondents as having the greatest economic influence in Southeast Asia.

Countries With the Most Economic Influence in Southeast Asia

This was originally posted on our Voronoi app. Download the app for free on iOS or Android and discover incredible data-driven charts from a variety of trusted sources.

This chart visualizes the results of a 2024 survey conducted by the ASEAN Studies Centre at the ISEAS-Yusof Ishak Institute.

Nearly 2,000 respondents from 10 countries were asked to select which country/region they believe has the most influential economic power in Southeast Asia.

The countries surveyed are all member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), a political and economic union of 10 countries in Southeast Asia.

Southeast Asia Perceptions: Who’s Got Economic Influence?

Across all ASEAN nations, China is regarded as the region’s most influential economic power.

Laos and Thailand had the highest share of respondents picking China, at 78% and 71% respectively. As the report points out, China is Laos’ largest foreign investor as well as its top export market.

Country🇨🇳 China🌏 ASEAN🇺🇸 U.S.
🇧🇳 Brunei64%18%8%
🇰🇭 Cambodia60%11%20%
🇮🇩 Indonesia54%28%8%
🇱🇦 Laos78%8%8%
🇲🇾 Malaysia67%17%9%
🇲🇲 Myanmar60%7%20%
🇵🇭 Philippines31%26%28%
🇸🇬 Singapore60%15%21%
🇹🇭 Thailand71%9%11%
🇻🇳 Vietnam53%29%11%

Note: Percentages are rounded.

Other ASEAN countries usually score highly as well, along with the United States.

It’s only in the Philippines, where China (31%), the U.S. (28%) and ASEAN (26%) were perceived as having a similar amount of influence.

ASEAN, Japan, and the EU

Filipinos also rated Japan’s economic influence the highest (9%) compared to those surveyed in other ASEAN countries. In 2023, the Southeast Asian bloc celebrated 50 years of friendship with Japan, marking it as one of their most important “dialogue partners.”

Country🇯🇵 Japan🇪🇺 EU🌐 Other
🇧🇳 Brunei3%1%7%
🇰🇭 Cambodia1%5%3%
🇮🇩 Indonesia5%1%3%
🇱🇦 Laos1%4%1%
🇲🇾 Malaysia4%0%2%
🇲🇲 Myanmar6%6%2%
🇵🇭 Philippines9%4%3%
🇸🇬 Singapore3%0%2%
🇹🇭 Thailand3%4%4%
🇻🇳 Vietnam3%3%2%

Note: Percentages are rounded. Other countries include: Australia, South Korea, India, and the UK.

The EU also received single-percentage responses, its highest share coming from Myanmar (6%), Cambodia (5%), and Laos (4%).

Finally, the report contrasted China’s robust economic influence with concerns about its growing impact in the region. Respondents from Vietnam (88%), Myanmar (88%), and Thailand (80%) had the highest levels of concern, despite their countries’ strong trade ties with China.

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