According to Gallup, 85% of the world’s one billion full-time employees are unhappy at work.
While there are a number of reasons that contribute towards job dissatisfaction, a toxic work environment can have a significant impact on an employee’s performance, not to mention their physical and mental health.
But identifying red flags before accepting a job offer can be difficult; companies often sell themselves as a model workplace, when in reality, their inner workings are hugely problematic.
How to Identify a Toxic Work Environment
Today’s graphic comes to us from resume.io and it illustrates the 15 warning signs to look out for before, during, and after a job interview.
Lifting the Corporate Veil
A toxic work environment diminishes productivity by breeding a culture of discrimination, disorganization, bullying, and may even be fueled by unethical or selfish motivations.
Luckily, prospective employees can avoid 40 hours of torment a week by probing the company’s culture before signing on the dotted line. Here is a list of things to look out for:
Before the Interview
For better or worse, first impressions matter. Although excitement levels may be high, it’s important to pay attention to potential missteps, even before the interview starts.
- Vague job description: There should be clarity around the roles and responsibilities associated with the job, even if it is a new role in the company.
- Negative reviews on Glassdoor: Company review platforms are quickly becoming an indispensable tool for jobseekers who are interested in learning more about previous and current employees’ experiences.
- It took a long time to arrange an interview: Companies should show respect for the interviewee by getting back to them in a timely manner.
- Forgetting interviews: This could suggest that either the company has serious communication issues, or they do not prioritize interviewing potential employees.
- The interview starts late: Punctuality is not only expected from the person being interviewed, the interviewer should also be on time.
During the Interview
Adrenaline may be pumping when the interviewee is in the hot seat, but it’s crucial that they take stock of how the interviewers are conducting themselves.
- Unprepared interviewers: If the interview lacks structure, this could signal a disorganized team and a lack of clear expectations for the role.
- No interest in listening: Both parties need to put their best foot forward in an interview, to make sure that the interviewee’s personality and skill set aligns with the company, and vice versa.
- Authoritarian interviewer: This may indicate a lack of respect for employees.
- Inability to communicate company values: If company values are embodied by employees, then they should be top of mind and easily communicated.
- Questions are skimmed over: Companies should be transparent and be willing to provide comprehensive answers to any questions an interviewee may have.
After the Interview
In addition to assessing their own performance, interviewees should give careful consideration to how the entire interview experience went.
- Short interview: Either the company has already chosen another candidate, or they are desperate to fill the role as quickly as possible.
- Quiet workspace: A lack of teamwork or fearful employees could be the culprit for a silent office.
- No office tour: Companies should always give prospective employees a glimpse into what their day-to-day could look like by showing them around and introducing them to the team.
- Job offer was given on the day of the interview: The company could be trying to restrict the interviewee doing further research into the company, or simply filling the role as quickly as possible.
- Delayed decision-making: Failing to get back to someone who has done an interview shows a lack of respect for their time or disorganization on the company’s end.
It’s also worth mentioning that mistakes can be made by anyone, so it is perhaps not helpful to scrutinize companies for small errors in judgement when most of the experience has been positive.
Regardless, if there are any looming uncertainties, it is up to the person being interviewed to ask.
Finding the Courage to Ask Questions
When it comes to interviews, questioning the culture of the company is just as important as questioning the interviewee on their knowledge and skills.
“He who asks a question may be a fool for five minutes. He who does not ask questions, remains a fool forever.”
—Ancient Chinese proverb
Switching jobs is rarely an easy process, especially when jobseekers have come up against unforeseen challenges as a result of COVID-19.
But it is more important than ever for people to do their due diligence, and be brave enough to ask tough questions. Otherwise, they may have to repeat the cycle all over again—much sooner than they would have thought.
The World’s Largest IPOs Adjusted For Inflation
Billion-dollar IPOs are always exciting, but how do modern raises compare to the world’s largest IPOs throughout history? We chart the top 25.
The World’s Largest IPOs Adjusted For Inflation
Billion-dollar initial public offerings (IPOs) are always eyebrow-raising events, and many have already made headlines in 2020.
Following the recent trend of tech IPOs outnumbering and out-hyping the competition, software has led the way. Cloud storage company Snowflake raised $3.4 billion in the largest ever software IPO, while gaming software developer Unity completed an IPO above its target price for a total of $1.3 billion and big data firm Palantir opted for a direct listing for a valuation of $22 billion.
More big names are still on the horizon. Both Airbnb and DoorDash have filed for December IPOs that would see them valued at close to $30 billion. It’s a big recovery for an IPO market that in 2019 saw major IPOs from Uber and Lyft underperform estimates.
But it was the last-minute cancellation of Ant Group’s IPO in November that would have been the largest public offering ever. At $34.5 billion, it would have eclipsed the massive $25.9 billion raised by energy giant Saudi Aramco in 2019.
How would this have stacked up against the world’s largest IPOs in history? We took the 25 largest global IPOs by nominal offering size as tracked by research firm Renaissance Capital, and adjusted them for inflation to October 2020 dollars.
NTT Docomo Tops the (Adjusted) Chart
Unicorn IPOs might be the current flavor in 2020, but they pale in comparison to communication and resource giants.
When adjusted for inflation, the largest ever IPO was Japan’s major mobile phone carrier NTT Docomo. The company went public as NTT Mobile Communications Network for a then-record $18 billion in 1998, which is $28.7 billion when adjusted for inflation to 2020.
|Company||IPO Date||Industry||Deal Size ($B)||Inflation Adjusted ($B)|
|NTT Mobile||Oct 1998||Communication Services||18.1||28.7|
|Saudi Aramco||Dec 2019||Energy||25.6||25.9|
|ENEL SpA||Nov 1999||Utilities||16.5||25.5|
|Alibaba (U.S.)||Sep 2014||Technology||21.8||23.9|
|SoftBank Corp||Dec 2018||Communication Services||21.3||22.1|
|Deutsche Telekom||Nov 1996||Communication Services||13||21.3|
|AIA Group||Oct 2010||Financials||17.8||21.2|
|General Motors||Nov 2010||Consumer Discretionary||15.8||18.8|
|Japan Tobacco Inc.||Oct 1994||Consumer Staples||9.6||16.7|
|AT&T Wireless Group||Apr 2000||Communication Services||10.6||16.1|
|Rosneft Oil Company||Jul 2006||Energy||10.4||13.3|
|Dai-ichi Life||Mar 2010||Financials||11||13.2|
|Kraft Foods||Jun 2001||Consumer Staples||8.7||12.7|
|Agricultural Bank (H.K.)||Jul 2010||Financials||10.4||12.4|
|Bank of China||May 2006||Financials||9.2||11.8|
|France Telecom||Oct 1997||Communication Services||7.3||11.7|
|Alibaba (H.K.)||Nov 2019||Technology||11.2||11.3|
|Electricite De France||Nov 2005||Utilities||8.3||11|
|Agricultural Bank (China)||Jul 2010||Financials||8.9||10.6|
|Hengshi Mining||Nov 2013||Materials||9.3||10.4|
|Japan Airlines||Sep 2012||Industrials||8.5||9.5|
Despite the recent flurry of IPO activity, only two of the largest 10 inflation-adjusted IPOs occurred in the last two years, with second place Saudi Aramco and Japan’s communications and tech conglomerate SoftBank.
Including NTT Docomo, three of the top 10 occurred in the 1990’s. Italy’s energy giant ENEL SpA raised the equivalent of $25.9 billion in 1999, and German communications company Deutsche Telekom raised the equivalent of $21.3 billion in 1996.
Communications services accounted for five of the top 25 IPOs, and four of the top 10. Only the financials were more prominent with six of the top 25.
Final IPO Numbers can Outperform (and Underperform)
One important consideration to make is that the final amount raised by an IPO can vary from the original deal size.
Though they are underwritten by a large financial institution for a set amount at a specific price range, companies often grant underwriters the “greenshoe option” to sell more shares than the original issue amount, usually up to 15% more.
This over-allotment option lets an underwriter capitalize on a strong market by offering more shares at a surging share price (which they cover at the original price). In the opposite case of falling share prices, the underwriter can buy back shares at market rate to stabilize the price and cover their short position.
Many of the largest ever IPOs have managed to capitalize on their much-hyped debuts. Saudi Aramco ended up raising $29.4 billion, almost $4 billion more than its original offering. In similar fashion, Chinese e-commerce giant Alibaba raised $25 billion on an offering of $21.8 billion, and Visa raised $19.7 billion on an offering of $17.9 billion.
Additionally, large corporations can take advantage of market sentiment by going public in multiple equity markets. Alibaba’s $25 billion debut on the New York Stock Exchange in 2014 was followed by a secondary offering on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange in 2019 for $11.2 billion. Likewise, the Agricultural Bank of China listed on both the Hong Kong and Shanghai Stock Exchanges in 2010 for a combined $22.1 billion haul.
More IPOS on the Docket for 2021
With excitement around IPOs bubbling once again, more companies are lining up to become the next big breakthrough on public markets.
2021’s list of IPO candidates include shopping app Wish (which has already filed for an offering), gaming companies Epic Games and Roblox, payment processing firm Stripe and even dating app Bumble.
And Ant Group’s massive potential IPO shadow looms over all, though regulatory overhauls in China might push it back to 2022 and lower the size of the offering.
For now, the list of the world’s largest IPOs looks to be relatively stable. But with social media giant Facebook cracking the Top 10 list in 2012, and SoftBank’s massive IPO in 2018, the next +$10 billion dollar IPO is always around the corner.
Mapped: The Top 30 Most Valuable Real Estate Cities in the U.S.
U.S. real estate value is concentrated in a handful of urban centers. Here’s a look at the top 30 most valuable cities.
The Most Valuable Real Estate Cities in America
According to real estate tycoon Harold Samuel, there are three things that matter when it comes to real estate value—location, location, and location.
America’s property market is no exception to this rule. Depending on the city and its—you guessed it—location, there are vast discrepancies in real estate value across the country.
Usingthe latest data from LendingTree, this graphic ranks the top 30 most valuable real estate cities in America. We’ll also evaluate the top cities based on median value of homes, and how COVID-19 has impacted the market.
The Most Valuable Real Estate Cities
Out of the $32.6 trillion of total real estate value included in LendingTree’s database, the top 30 cities account for almost 57%:
|1||New York||New York||$2,838|
|11||San Jose, Calif.||California||$568|
|25||Charlotte, N.C||North Carolina||$248|
New York has the highest real estate value in the country at $2.8 trillion—that’s around the size of the UK’s GDP in 2019. Close behind is Los Angeles at $2.3 trillion, while San Francisco ranks third at $1.3 trillion.
This may not come as a surprise, considering the popularity of these areas. New York and Los Angeles have the two highest city populations in the U.S., and San Francisco is the second most densely populated city in America (after New York). Historically, these areas have been notorious for their red-hot real estate markets, limited housing supply, and high costs of living.
However, while these cities take the top three spots when it comes to total real estate value, the ranking looks a bit different when comparing the median value of each city.
Most Valuable Cities, by Median Home Value
When it comes to median home value, San Jose claims the top spot at $1.1 million, while San Francisco places second at $959K:
|Rank||City||State||Median Value of a Home|
|7||New York||New York||$501,000|
|18||Salt Lake City||Utah||$312,000|
The Bay Area leads the pack in terms of median value, but San Francisco and San Jose aren’t the only Californian cities to make the list. In fact, half of the top 10 cities are in the Golden State.
It’s important to note that these numbers are from January 2020, before the global pandemic triggered numerous societal and economic changes, including an accelerated migration to the suburbs from key urban centers like New York and San Francisco.
This mass exodus has negatively impacted sales activity. In fall 2020, or example, home sales in New York dropped by 50% compared to last year.
In contrast, places like Honolulu have seen significant growth in home sales—in September 2020, single-family home sales rose by 12.7% compared to last year. Some experts believe COVID has been a key factor driving this growth, as more people are able to work from anywhere, thanks to remote work.
Financing1 month ago
The 25 Largest Private Equity Firms in One Chart
Technology2 weeks ago
50 Years of Gaming History, by Revenue Stream (1970-2020)
Agriculture1 month ago
The Economics of Coffee in One Chart
Politics1 month ago
Charting America’s Debt: $27 Trillion and Counting
Leadership4 weeks ago
The World’s Most Influential Values, In One Graphic
Markets2 weeks ago
Mapped: The Top Export in Every Country
Politics1 month ago
Animated Map: U.S. Presidential Voting History by State (1976-2016)
Misc1 month ago
The 50 Highest Cities in the World