12 Types of Technical Indicators Used by Stock Traders
If you’re planning to hold a portfolio of blue chip stocks well into retirement, then short-term movements in the market are not likely your biggest worry.
However, if you dabble in the stock market on a day-to-day basis, or if you simply want to know what drives the thinking of other market participants, it can be very beneficial to understand the basics of technical indicators.
Many traders swear by them to help with the timing of their trades or to alert them of trends. But, even for an investor more focused on the underlying fundamentals of companies, learning how these indicators work can provide added conviction on new or existing trades.
Types of Technical Indicators
Today’s infographic comes to us from StocksToTrade.com, and it explores the fundamentals behind 12 of the most commonly-used technical indicators. It differentiates between lagging and leading indicators, and also explains some basic tactics for incorporating these markers into an overall investment strategy.
The infographic differentiates between four different types, including trend, momentum, volatility, and volume indicators.
These technical indicators measure the direction and strength of a trend by comparing prices to an established baseline.
Moving Averages: Used to identify trends and reversals, as well as to set up support and resistance levels.
Parabolic Stop and Reverse (Parabolic SAR): Used to find potential reversals in the market price direction.
Moving Average Convergence Divergence (MACD): Used to reveal changes in the strength, direction, momentum, and duration of a trend in a stock’s price.
These technical indicators may identify the speed of price movement by comparing the current closing price to previous closes.
Stochastic Oscillator: Used to predict price turning points by comparing the closing price to its price range.
Commodity Channel Index (CCI): An oscillator that helps identify price reversals, price extremes, and trend strength.
Relative Strength Index (RSI): Measures recent trading strength, velocity of change in the trend, and magnitude of the move.
These technical indicators measure the rate of price movement, regardless of direction.
Bollinger bands: Measures the “highness” or “lowness” of price, relative to previous trades.
Average True Range: Shows the degree of price volatility.
Standard Deviation: Used to measure expected risk and to determine the significance of certain price movements.
These technical indicators measure the strength of a trend based on volume of shares traded.
Chaikin Oscillator: Monitors the flow of money in and out of the market, which can help determine tops and bottoms.
On-Balance Volume (OBV): Attempts to measure level of accumulation or distribution, by comparing volume to price.
Volume Rate of Change: Highlights increases in volume. These normally happen mostly at market tops, bottoms, or breakouts.
How Disinflation Could Affect Company Financing
History signals that after a period of slowing inflation—also known as disinflation—debt and equity issuance expands.
How Disinflation Could Affect Company Financing
The macroeconomic environment is shifting. Since the second half of 2022, the pace of U.S. inflation has been dropping.
We explore how this disinflation may affect company financing in Part 2 of our Understanding Market Trends series from Citizens.
Disinflation vs. Deflation
The last time inflation climbed above 9% and then dropped was in the early 1980’s.
|Time Period||March 1980-July 1983||June 2022-April 2023*|
|Inflation at Start of Cycle||14.8%||9.1%|
|Inflation at End of Cycle||2.5%||4.9%|
* The June 2022-April 2023 cycle is ongoing. Source: Federal Reserve. Inflation is based on the Consumer Price Index.
A decrease in the rate of inflation is known as disinflation. It differs from deflation, which is a negative inflation rate like the U.S. experienced at the end of the Global Financial Crisis in 2009.
How might slowing inflation affect the amount of debt and equity available to companies?
Looking to History
There are many factors that influence capital markets, such as technological advances, monetary policy, and regulatory changes.
With this caveat in mind, history signals that both debt and equity issuance expand after a period of disinflation.
Companies issued low levels of stock during the ‘80s disinflation period, but issuance later rose nearly 300% in 1983.
Source: Bloomberg. U.S. public equity issuance dollar volume that includes both initial and follow-on offerings and excludes convertibles.
Issuance grew quickly in the years that followed. Other factors also influenced issuance, such as the macroeconomic expansion, productivity growth, and the dotcom boom of the ‘90s.
Similarly, companies issued low debt during the ‘80s disinflation, but levels began to increase substantially in later years.
|Year||Deal Value||Interest Rate|
Source: Dealogic, Federal Reserve. Data reflects U.S. debt issuance dollar volume across several deal types including: Asset Backed Securities, U.S. Agency, Non-U.S. Agency, High Yield, Investment Grade, Government Backed, Mortgage Backed, Medium Term Notes, Covered Bonds, Preferreds, and Supranational. Interest Rate is the 10 Year Treasury Yield.
As interest rates dropped and debt capital markets matured, issuing debt became cheaper and corporations seized this opportunity.
It’s worth noting that debt issuance was also impacted by other factors, like the maturity of the high-yield debt market and growth in non-bank lenders such as hedge funds and pension funds.
Then vs. Now
Could the U.S. see levels of capital financing similar to what happened during the ‘80s disinflation? There are many economic differences between then and now.
Consider how various indicators differed 10 months into each disinflationary period.
|January 1981||April 2023*|
Next 12 Months
10-Yr Treasury Yield
|Nominal Wage Growth|
Annual, Seasonally Adjusted
|After-Tax Corporate Profits|
As Share of Gross Value Added
* Data for inflation expectations and interest rate is as of May 2023, data for corporate profits is as of Q4 1980 and Q1 2023. Inflation is a year-over-year inflation rate based on the Consumer Price Index. Source: Federal Reserve.
The U.S. economy is in a better position when it comes to factors like inflation, unemployment, and corporate profits. On the other hand, fears of an upcoming recession and turmoil in the banking sector have led to volatility.
What to Consider During Disinflation
Amid uncertainty in financial markets, lenders and investors may be more cautious. Companies will need to be strategic about how they approach capital financing.
- High-quality, profitable companies could be well positioned for IPOs as investors are placing more focus on cash flow.
- High-growth companies could face fewer options as lenders become more selective and could consider alternative forms of equity and private debt.
- Companies with lower credit ratings could find debt more expensive as lenders charge higher rates to account for market volatility.
In uncertain times, it’s critical for businesses to work with the right advisor to find—and take advantage of—financing opportunities.
Learn more about working with Citizens.
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